MOOCs

Report
Thinking about
Blended
Learning
Diana Laurillard
The global demand for education
By 2025, the global demand for higher education will double to ~200m per
year, mostly from emerging economies (NAFSA 2010)
1,600,000 new teaching posts needed for universal primary education by
2015.
3,300,000 new teachers by 2030 (UNESCO 2013)
Student loan debt in US is higher than CC debt so
students will demand new models of teaching
and learning
Can we use technology to reduce the current staff:student
ratios of higher education and maintain quality?
The overall programme aim
From blended to open learning? Internet and
ICT in Flemish Higher Education:
- the purpose of which is the development of a
systemic vision on the optimal exploitation of
ICT and internet for the new learning of the
21st century and to provide an alternative
perspective aiming at formulating long term
policy objectives.
10 Discussion items on Blended Learning
1. How will blended learning change HE on campus (BA, MA)?
2. Blended learning and the teacher
3. The evaluation, exams and assessment challenge
4. Open and distance learning - Lifelong learning
5. Blended learning and the institution
6. Inter institutional networking (national, European and global)
7. MOOCs
8. Implications for interaction with secondary / primary education
9. Role of government and official bodies
10. Potential for development cooperation
Blended, Online and Open Learning
Blended
Online
Dual mode
Open
Blends online and f2f for campus students
Online only, anywhere
Blended + equivalent online
Online with open entry (OU, MOOCs)
• Online learning offers opportunity of high fixed costs and
low support costs to improve per-student cost
• Teaching costs must be carefully managed and planned
• Learning benefits must be designed and evaluated
• Technology use should start from problems, not solutions
HE problems and Technology solutions
Problems
Problemswe
weknow
knowwe
wehave
have
•• Transition
Transitionto
toHE
HEisispoor
poorfor
formany
many
students
students
•• Demand
Demandfor
forquality
qualityHE
HEcannot
cannotbe
be
met
meton
onthe
thecurrent
currentmodel
model
•• Employers
Employersdissatisfied
dissatisfiedwith
with
graduate
graduateskills
skills
•• Academics
Academicsinterested
interestedin
inresearch
research
rather
ratherthan
thanteaching
teaching
•• Students
Studentshave
haveaadigital
digitallife
life
untapped
untappedby
bytheir
theirHE
HEcourse
course
•• Alumni
Alumnineed
needflexible
flexiblecontinuing
continuing
professional
professionaldevelopment
development
•• Assessment
Assessmentdoes
doesnot
notmotivate
motivatethe
the
learning
learningneeded
needed
•• Students
Studentslack
lackmotivation
motivationand
and
independence
independencein
inlearning
learning
Potential technology solutions
 Extend access to HE ICT resources
and activities to schools
 Use large-scale cascade online
courses model to reach out
 Use online collaboration to enable
employers to influence curriculum
 Link teaching to online research
methods
 Use online student collaboration
for sharing digital learning ideas
 Extend access to HE ICT resources
and activities to alumni
 Use tech to update assessment as
automated and more challenging
 Include digital tools for students to
do inquiry, practice, discussion,
collaboration, production
Models of online learning?
Problem/Issue
Audience
Pedagogy
Content
Income
Transition to HE Schools
Inquiry
Collaborative
Repurposed
Free
Large classes
Undergraduates
All, pyramid +
personal support
New
Fee + Govt
High demand
Part-time
students
All, pyramid +
personal support
New
Fee +
Employer
High level skills
Postgraduates
All, high support
New
Fee + Govt
Workplace
updates
Professionals
MOOC, peer
support
Market
driven
Fee
Alumni updates
Alumni
MOOC, low
support
Research
driven
Fee/Subscrip
tion
Lifelong
learning
Open to all
MOOC, peer
support
Repurposed
Free
The MOOC as ‘large-scale’ pedagogy
Average student numbers per course - Edinburgh
Enrolled
51500
Accessed Week 1
20500
Engaged Week 1
15000
Week 5 asst's
6000
Statement of Accomplishment
5500
0
27%
10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000
Completed = 27% of ‘starters’
MOOCs @ Edinburgh 2013 – Report #1
The MOOC as ‘large-scale’ pedagogy
Average student numbers per course - UoL
Registered
53250
Week 1
23367
Week 2
17275
Week 3
11377
Week 4
9592
Week 5
9%
7730
Week 6
6747
SoA
2211
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
Completed = 9% of ‘starters’
MOOC Report 2013: University of London
The MOOC as undergraduate education
Not for undergraduates
PG degree
40%
Degree
30%
College
70%
have
degrees
17%
10%
School
Less than high school
3%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
Enrolled students
MOOCs @ Edinburgh 2013 – Report #1
The MOOC as undergraduate education
Not for undergraduates
Doctorate
4%
Masters
29%
Bachelors
35%
Professional
68%
have
degrees
8%
11%
A level
8%
GCSE
3%
Schooling
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
Enrolled students
MOOC Report 2013: University of London
The MOOC as undergraduate education
85%
have
degrees
MOOCs: Higher Education’s Digital Moment? 2013: UUK
The economics of teaching and learning in HE
Preparation of curriculum and resources
Fixed cost
Adaptive systems: field trips, lab sessions, simulations, models
Expositions: lectures, study guides, slides, podcasts, videos
Formative assessment: feedback from peers, digital systems
Readings: books, papers, websites, pdfs
Collaborations: projects, workshops, role play simulations, wikis
Peer group discussion: seminars, discussion forums
Formative assessment: tutor feedback offline, feedback online
Tutored discussion: tutorials, small groups, discussion forums
Summative assessment: exams, essays, designs, performance
Support for students learning
Variable cost
Pedagogies for supporting large classes
Concealed MCQs
The (virtual) Keller Plan
The vicarious master class
Pyramid discussion groups
Conceal answers to question
Ask for user-constructed input
Introduce
content
Show multiple
answers/comments
Self-paced
Ask studentpractice
to improve answer
Tutor-marked
test
240
individual
students produce
Tutorial
for
5 representative
students
Student
becomes
tutor
for
credit
response
toand
open
question
Questions
guidance
represent
all
Until
half
class
is
tutoring
the
rest
Pairs
compare
students’
needsand produce joint
response
60 groups of 4 compare and produce
joint response and post as one of 10
responses...
6 groups of 40 students vote on best
response
Teacher receives 6 responses to
comment on
What it takes to teach with technology
The teaching workload is increasing in terms of
Planning for how students will learn in the mix of the physical, digital
and social learning spaces designed for them
Curating and adapting existing content resources
Designing activities and resources for all types of active learning
Personalised and adaptive teaching that improve traditional methods
Providing flexibility in blended learning options
Guiding and nurturing large cohorts of students
Using learning technologies to improve scale AND outcomes
BUT:
Institutions and teachers do not typically plan for the teaching workload
implied by these learning benefits
nor for the need to collaborate to innovate with technology
The design cycle for teaching
Build on others’
tested designs
Browse
Adopt
??
Publish
Adapt
Develop
Test
Self
review
Redesign
Building teaching community knowledge
Make links to
existing content
resources
The design cycle for science
What is the
teaching design
equivalent of
the journal
paper?
Browse
Adopt
Publish
Adapt
Develop
Test
Review
Redesign
Building scientific knowledge
A tool for learning design: browsing
The Learning Designer: Adopt
(interpreting Tudor portraits)
Details of: learning
context, topic, aims,
outcomes, student
numbers, duration
Details of the pedagogy:
types of learning activity,
group size, teacher presence,
attached urls, duration,
student guidance
Analysis of the learning
experience calculated
dynamically
The Learning Designer: Adapt
(experimental design for Psychology)
Note the designed
time is much greater
than the allotted time
Every section of the
learning design can be
edited, and new
resources attached
Share to
submit for
review
Analysis of the learning
experience adapts to
your edits
The Learning Designer: Review
(Business planning for engineers)
Reviewer Feedback
Notes for additional
comments
Reviews and comments
could be student
evaluations
Additional pane for
Reviewer to add comments
according to criteria ‘Test of
outcome? Alignment?
Feedback? Technology?
Teaching as a design cycle
Question:
What is the
teaching design
equivalent of the
journal paper?
Answer:
A learning
design that can
be reviewed,
adapted,
improved,
published,
reused…
Browse
Adopt
Publish
Adapt
Create
Test
Review
Redesign
Building learning technology knowledge
Balancing the benefits and costs
It’s important to understand the link between the
pedagogical benefits and teaching time costs of online
learning – especially for the large-scale
What are the new digital pedagogies that will address the
1:25 student guidance conundrum? How to shift variable cost
support to fixed cost support?
Can we develop a viable business model that will make HE
more effective and affordable for undergraduates?
Analysing teacher workload
(the Course Resource Appraisal Model CRAM)
Details of: credit hours,
cohort size, income,
teacher costs, types of
learning and teaching,
online and f2f, time for
prep and for support
Run No. of students
Run 1
15
Run 2
20
Run 3
20
Learning experience
Teacher preparation time
Teaching support time
Analysing teacher workload
(the Course Resource Appraisal Model CRAM)
Run 1 Run 2 Run 3
Students
15
20 20
Profit
-£27k £4k £11k
Run 1 Run 2 Run 3
Students
15
30
60
Profit
-£27k £11k £38k
Analysing workload for a Basic MOOC
(the Course Resource Appraisal Model CRAM)
Run 1
Students 2000
Profit
£21k
Run 2 Run 3
2000
2000
£35k
£35k
Assuming £20 (?) income for Signature Track
What if only 500 complete?
Run 1
Students 500
Profit
-£9k
Run 2 Run 3
500 500
£5k
£5k
What does it mean for our online courses?
•
•
•
•
The high visibility teaching in MOOCs will improve the
presentation quality of UG and PG courses
The need to design well-orchestrated groups and peer support
activities will promote pedagogic innovation and better VLE
functionality
We can improve the variable costs of teaching support if we
explore methods like
– pyramid collaboration groups: from many students to few
outputs for tutors to inspect
– cascaded tutor: from one teacher to many tutors
– vicarious master class: from one small group to all
They will only flourish if we demand, and get, improved
pedagogic design functionality on VLE platforms
THEN perhaps UG/PG education can achieve high quality and reach
that is more affordable
What does this mean for the future of blended
learning?
• We need large student numbers to offset the high
production costs of the ‘flipped classroom’ (and
high visibility teaching)
• We must understand the variable costs of
teaching support, as scaling up UG/PG teaching
could be unmanageable
• Our current CPD model fits the MOOC pedagogy:
– Good presentation of latest thinking and ideas
– Peer discussion, debate, exchange, and challenge
– Certification of attendance
What might we do? A systemic approach
• Build a learning system: legitimise, incentivise, fund the
lecturers to take innovative pedagogy as a part of their
professionalism
• Engage the whole community in the current educational
challenges - What are they? – and how technology can help.
• Fund the leading innovators (activist groups) to develop and
share, and the leading followers to adopt then lead
• Fund further development of a pedagogically sound online
platform – beyond current functionality – lecturers specify
• Launch a project on the modelling of high quality, large
scale, flexible, affordable HE
Timeline and milestones to enable all
departments/universities to integrate ICT in a
sustainable way
Phase 3:
2016-17
Phase 2:
2015-16
Phase 1:
2014-15
Phase 4:
2017-19

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