KPA Media Workshop - Kenya Ports Authority

Report
Growing prosperity through trade
Kenya Ports Authority
Media Workshop
Port Efficiency and Hinterland Infrastructure
A Symbiotic Relationship
Overview
Economic Geography
• Ports do not exist in isolation. ‘However attractive a site1 may be for
harbour development, it cannot create a port unless the situation2 allows
the development of the all important relations with the hinterland’
• On the landward side they need to connect to areas of economic
productivity (typically origin or destination ports )
• On the seaward side, their relationship to global sea-lanes and to other
ports of significance (transshipment ports)
1.
2.
The immediate area of land and waters in which facilities are developed
The broad view of the port in the wider physical, human and especially economic environment
*A geographical Study of the seaports of East Africa 1967
Overview
Role of (Origin and Destination) Ports in the Transport Supply
Chain
• Provide for the balanced, smooth and cost effective flow of cargo through
the port
• Provide storage space required for intermodal change – mindful of
different cargo carrying attributes.
• Handle both:
–
–
liner vessels operating on fixed routes to fixed schedules on fixed rates;
and charter (tramp) vessels which operate entirely to the demands of the person hiring
them.
• Must cater for customs and other agency checks to ensure that goods
arriving are legitimate, and that appropriate duties and fees are paid.
Historic Development
Although Ports on the East African Coast can trace the history back many
centuries, their ‘modern’ development began with:
• The opening of the Suez Canal
• The construction of railways to exploit the economic hinterland
• Tanga is the oldest of all the gateway ports on the East African seaboard,
dating back to 1893, Mombasa 1895, Dar es Salaam 1905, Mtwara 1954
Historic Development
Kasese Line (1956)
Kampala Mainline
(1931)
Kisumu Line (1901)
Mombasa-Nairobi
Mainline (1896-1899)
Mwanza Line (1928)
Singida Line
(1985)
Arusha line (1929)
Moshi -Voi Link-line
(1924)
Tanga- Moshi
Mainline (1893-1911)
Kalemie
-Kabalo
Line
Tanga Link Line
(1963)
Mpanda Line (1949)
Dar es SalaamKigoma Mainline
(1905-1914)
Kidatu Line (1965)
TAZARA Mainline
(1067mm Gauge)
Dar es Salaam –
Kapiri Mposhi (19701975)
Historic Development
Mombasa
Established in 1895 to aid construction of the Uganda Railway
1947 – 1967: East African Railways and Harbours Corporation
1967 -1977: East African Harbours Corporation
1977 – 1986: Kenya Ports Authority and Kenya Cargo Handling Services
1986 - Present Day: Kenya Ports Authority
Current Situation
In 2011, of all volumes handled through Mombasa:
• 72% of all port volumes for Kenya’s domestic market
• 22% for Uganda
• 2.3% for the DRC; 1.5% for Rwanda; Less than 1% for Tanzania, Burundi,
South Sudan and Somalia
2%
Kenya Imports
6%
20%
Kenya Exports
60%
12%
Uganda Imports
Uganda Exports
Remaining Transit Country Imports/Exports
Throughputs
Current Situation
Major Imports:
• Consumer Goods
• Crude and Petroleum
Products
• Industrial Machinery
• Vehicles
• Iron & Steel
• Plastics
• Grains and Fertilizers
• Other Dry Bulks
Major Exports:
•
•
•
•
Tea
Coffee
Cash Crops
Soda Ash
Current Situation
• Kenya’s population
concentrated in the central
and western parts of the
country;
• Increasing coastal population
Current Situation
• Predominantly a Corridor Port – 80% (?) of goods transported at least 500km
inland
Current Hinterland Connectivity
Current Hinterland Connectivity
Challenges
1. Ship/Shore performance can be affected by yard congestion
caused by slow clearing and forwarding arrangements
World Average Container Terminal Comparison
Description
Units
Small
Medium
Large
All
Mombasa
Terminals Terminals Terminals Terminals Terminal
Quay Line
Capacity
TEU per m of quay per
annum
300
550
1300-1700
900
533
Gantry Crane
Capacity
TEU per crane per annum
45,000
80,000
130,000
100,000
79,902
Yard Capacity
TEU per Hectare
7,500
14,500
35,000
20,000
23,000
Challenges
2. High dwell time necessitates additional infrastructure (to handle
same volumes)
Exports
Empty
Returns
T'shipments
Totals
109,941
115,303
242,927
19,927
770,804
5.4
8.5
11
11
15
Holding Capacity (c)
4,182
2,560
3,475
7,321
819
18,358
TGS Computation (d)
1,394
853
695
1,464
273
4,680
Peak Factor (e)
20%
20%
20%
20%
20%
Total TGS
Requirements
1,673
1,024
834
1,757
328
Annual Volume (a)
Average Dwell
Time(b)
Domestic
Imports
Transit
Imports
282,706
5,616
Challenges
3. Poor rail performance
– in 2011 lifted less than 5% of port throughputs
– Much of the rail network needs modification to take account of changing
freight trends
4. High urban migration, poor urban planning and zoning
–
Planning across sectors required to achieve a balanced and smooth flow
of cargo through the port
5. Poor urban road networks
– All coastal traffic has to filter across Mombasa Island
• Need northern and southern bypasses, extension of the duel carriageway
between Nyali and Mtwapa
– All transit traffic routes through the center of Nairobi, Kampala and other major
towns
Challenges
Challenges
Challenges
6. Capacity needed (ahead of demand) to cater for
Trade/Transport Growth2
 transport demand typically grows at double GDP
Daily Freight Task
Cargo Trade
2011
2015
Actual
Containers (TEU/Day)
2020
2025
2030
Estimated
2,112
3,005
4,839
7,794
12,552
10,764
14,706
20,625
28,928
40,573
Conventional Cargo
(Tons/Day)
4,025
5,056
6,766
9,054
12,117
Liquid Bulks (Tons/Day)
18,534
22,330
Dry Bulk
(Tons/Day)
-
Challenges
7. Future cargoes will be
carried on even bigger
ships
•
Need Bigger and more specialized
terminals and a concentration of port
facilities
Political Challenge
• Devolution to County Governments
(47)
• Need integrated transport demand
modeling ?

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