Bio-fertilizer - A-View

Report
Geena Prasad
What is Solid Waste?
 Solid Waste (also referred to as rubbish, trash, refuse,
garbage, or junk) is unwanted or unusable materials.
What is Solid Waste Management?
 SWM is the control of generation, storage, collection, transfer
and transportation, processing and disposal of solid wastes.
 This includes all technological, financial, institutional and
legal aspects involved to solve the whole spectrum of issues
related solid wastes
 Objective: Reduction in generation and proper disposal..
2
Major types of SW




Municipal Waste
Hazardous Waste
Biomedical Waste
Electronic Waste
3
4
Classification of SW
 Classified into two
• based on source of
generation
• based on type
Classification based on Source
•Residential
•Commercial
•Institutional
•Municipal
•Industrial
•Agricultural
5
Classification based on type
Biodegradable
Non-biodegradable
consist of organic
matter and can be
degraded
consist of
inorganic and
recyclable
materials which
cannot be
degraded
Paper, food waste, vegetables and
fruit peels, wood, etc.
Plastics,Glass,Metals
6
Classification of solid wastes
Type
Description
Source
Garbage
Wastes from the preparation, cooking and serving of food,
market refuse, waste from the handling, storage, and sale of
produce and meat.
Households, institutions and
commercial concerns such
as hotels, stores,
restaurants, market, etc
Combustible
& noncombustible
Combustible (primarily organic) paper, cardboard, cartons,
wood, boxes, plastic, rags, cloth, bedding, leather, rubber,
grass, leaves, yard trimmings etc.
Ashes
Residue from fires used for cooking and for heating building
cinders
7
Classification of solid wastes
Type
Description
Source
Bulky
wastes
Large auto parts, tyres, stoves, refrigerators,
other large appliances, furniture, large crates,
trees branches, stumps etc
Streets, sidewalks,
alleys, vacant plots
etc.
Street sweepings, dirt, leaves etc.
Street
wastes
Dogs, cats, rats, donkeys etc.
Dead
animals
Abandone Automobiles and spare parts
d vehicles
Constructi Roofing and sheathing scraps, rubble, broken
on &
concrete, plaster, conduit pipe, wire, insulation
demolition etc
wastes
Construction and
demolition sites
8
Classification of solid wastes
Type
Description
Source
Industrial
wastes
Solid wastes resulting from industrial processes
and manufacturing operations, such as food
processing wastes, boiler house cinders, wood,
plastic and metal scraps, shaving etc.
Factories, power
plants etc
Hazardou Pathological wastes, explosives, radioactive
s wastes materials etc.
Animals & Manure, crop residues etc.
agricultur
al wastes
Households,
hospitals,
institutions,stores,
industry etc
Livestock, farms,
feedlots and
agriculture
Sewage
Coarse screening grit, septic tank sludge,
treatment dewatered sludge.
residue
Sewage treatment
plants and septic
tanks.
9
Degeneration Time-Solid Wastes
Category
Type of waste
Approximate time taken
to degenerate
Organic waste such as A week or two
vegetable and fruit
peels, food waste etc
Biodegradable
Non-biodegradable
Paper
Upto 30 days
Cotton cloth
2-5 months
Woollen items
1 year
Wood
upto15 years
Tin, aluminum, and 100-500 years
other metal items such
as cans
Plastic bags
One million years?
Glass bottles
Undetermined
10
Functional elements associated with SWM
Waste generation
Waste Storage
Waste collection
Transfer & transport
Processing
Disposal of final rejects
11
Composition of Municipal waste
SWM Activities-2 major areas
SWM
Social Engineering
Technological
Interventions
13
Solid Waste Management in India
• SWM is the primary responsibility and duty of the Urban Local
Bodies
• Direction from Supreme Court - MoEF issued Municipal Solid
Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000
• These rules stipulate various steps and standards for achieving
effective SWM
14
SWM In India-contd..
 CPHEEO estimation- Per capita waste generation 200
to 600 gm/day
 CPCB: collection coverage is 50 to 90% and 94% of the
collected waste disposed of without scientific
management practices
15
Some Facts about MSW in India
 There are 4,378 cities and towns in India
 Total urban population : 28.5 crores
 423 are class I cities (population exceeds 1 lakh)
 These contribute more than 72% of the total MSW
16
Waste Generation in Class1 Cities
Type of cities
Waste generatedTonnes/day
% of total
garbage
The 7 mega cities
21,100
18.35
The 28 metro cities
19,643
17.08
The 388 class 1 towns
42,635
37.07
Total
83,378
72.50
17
Status of SWM in Kerala
LSGIs
Waste generated- % of total waste
Tonnes/day
Corporations
1069
18.19
Municipalities
683
11.62
Gr. Panchayats
4126
70.19
Total
5878
100
18
Waste Generation
 Information on waste quantity and composition is
essential for formulating SWM plan for any city
 Factors affecting waste generation
 Location
 Climate
 Socio-economic factors
19
Waste Characteristics
Physical
•Density of waste
•Moisture content
•Size
Chemical
Lipids
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Natural fibres
Synthetic organic
materials
Non-combustibles
etc.
20
Waste Collection, Storage & Transport
The factors that influence the waste collection system
Record
keeping &
Documentation
Transfer
Station
Collection
points
Collection
frequency
WASTE
WASTE
COLLECTION,
COLLECTION,
STORAGE
STORAGE
&&TRANSPORT
TRANSPORT
Collection
Vehicle
Routing
Storage
containers
Collection
crew
Collection
Vehicles
Collection
route
Collection points
Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Collection
Frequency
Climatic conditions
and requirements
of a locality
Containers
Costs
Storage
Activities associated with the handling of SW until they are
placed in the containers used r storage before collection
ON-SITE STORAGE:
Factors considered:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Types of containers used
Container Locations
Public health
Aesthetics
Methods of Collection
Segregation at source
Collection crew
The size of the collection crew depends on
 The size and type of collection vehicle used
 Space between the houses
 Waste generation rate
 Collection frequency.
 Various management arrangements, ranging from municipal
services, using self help groups to franchised services are
prevailing for waste collection.
 Kerala, one of the pioneering states that implemented the
decentralization of power to local governments has initiated
many models in collection of solid wastes from the sources to
the transportation points using the Self Help Groups, known
as Kudumbasree groups, formed under the State Poverty
Alleviation Mission.
Kudumasree groups are involved in
collection of wastes
Waste Collection
Separate vehicles have to be employed to
transport the biodegradable waste & mixed nonrecyclable waste.
All waste to be collected from collection points
within 24 hrs.
There can be many deficiencies in the collection
system, the main deficiency being spillage during
loading operations and collection on need basis.
Collection Vehicles
 The collection vehicle could be a motorized vehicle, a
pushcart or a trailer towed by a suitable prime mover
(tractor, etc).
 The collection vehicle selected must be appropriate to the
terrain, type and density of waste generation points, the
way it travels and type and kind of material
 It also depends upon strength, stature and capability of the
crew that will work with it. The collection vehicle may be
small and simple (e.g., two-wheeled cart pulled by an
individual) or large, complex and energy intensive (e.g., rear
loading compactor truck).
Small-scale collection
 generally used in rural hilly areas
 These can be small rickshaws, carts or
wagons pulled by people or animals,
and are less expensive, easier to build
and maintain compared to other
vehicles
 They are suitable for densely
populated areas with narrow lanes,
and squatter settlements, where there
is relatively low volume of waste
generated
Non-compactor trucks
Non-compactor trucks are efficient and cost
effective in small cities and in areas where
wastes tend to be very dense and have little
potential for compaction
Compactor vehicles
The vehicles equipped
with hydraulic loading
arm hook the bins and
unload the waste into the
vehicle compartment
The manual handling of
waste is avoided
Collection route
Proper planning of collection route helps
conserve energy and minimize working hours
and vehicle fuel consumption.
It is necessary, therefore, to develop detailed
route configurations and collection schedules for
the selected collection system.
Barriers, such as railroad, embankments, rivers
and roads with heavy traffic, can be considered
to divide route territories
Routing (network) analyses and planning can be
done using the detailed maps prepared using
remote sensing data and GIS
Collection Vehicle Routing
Efficient routing of solid waste collection vehicles can
help decrease costs by reducing the labour expended
for collection.
Transportation of Waste
 Compactors and properly covered dump trucks were to
be utilized to transport the waste to the landfill site.
 Separate vehicles were to be employed for transportation
of biodegradable waste and mixed recyclable waste.
 Compactor loaders directly lift the bin, unload the waste
and replace it in the original position.
 Choice of vehicle depends on the access roads to
individual sites.
 Dump trucks are fitted with hydraulic equipments which
enable them to unload waste without the help of manual
labour.
Record keeping and Documentation
 Records of personnel and quantities of wastes collected are
useful in determining the efficiency of the personnel and in
correlating waste quantities with conditions in the service
area. A time keeping system at the transfer or disposal site
is a key element in improving the efficiency of collection
system and planning an upgraded system
Technological Options
2
• Thermo-chemical
Conversion
• Pyrolysis & Gasification
• Plasma Pyrolysis
• Refuse Derived Fuel
(RDF)
39
Composting
• Composting is the biodegradation of organic matter like food waste,
vegetable waste, garden waste etc – producing humus
• The decomposition is performed by micro-organisms, mostly
bacteria, but also yeasts and fungi.
• Composting proceeds through 4 phases
40
Composting
1. Mesophilic
phase-upto
40oC
2.
Thermophilic
phase-upto
70oC
3. Cooling
phase
4.
Maturation
phase
41
Different types of Composting

Windrow

Aerated static pile

In-vessel composting

Vermi composting
42
Windrow Composting
 Windrows are defined as regularly turned elongated piles,
trapezoidal in cross section.
 Size of Windrows- upto 2m high and 6m wide.
 Optimum size and shape depends on the particle size,
moisture content, pore space and decomposition rate
43
Aerated Static Pile Composting
 Networks of pipes are connected to
a blower which supplies the air for
composting
 A controlled air supply enables
formation of large piles, saving land
space.
 Traps or filters control odours from
the exhaust.
 Compost production takes about 6
to 12 weeks.
44
In-vessel Composting System
 The feedstock is enclosed in a vessel that provides
adequate mixing, aeration and moisture.
 Vessel either rotates or is stationary, where a mixing
mechanism moves the material around.
 Advantage: all environmental conditions can be
controlled to allow rapid composting.
 It requires further curing after the material has been
discharged from the vessel
45
Vermi Composting
• It is the breakdown of
organic matter by some
species of earthworm
• Kitchen wastes except oily
and spicy items are suitable.
• Material sprayed with
pesticides, high water
content materials etc are
not suitable.
46
Biomethanation
 Methanogenic bacteria breakdown the organic material
under anaerobic condition and produce methane and
carbon dioxide.
 The effluent after digestion is a rich source of nutrients and
can be used as a fertilizer.
Bio gas unit - fixed dome model
47
Types of Digesters
 Single-stage digester
 standard rate digester
 high rate digester
 Two-stage digester
Biogas Plants in India
 Floating drum type
 Fixed masonry dome type
48
Incineration
 It is a chemical reaction in which carbon, hydrogen and
other elements in the waste mix with oxygen in the
combustion zone and generates heat.
 Aim




Volume reduction
Stabilization of waste
Recovery of energy from waste
Sterilization of waste
49
Incineration
 Thermal degradation in the absence of O2
 Can be used for MSW, tyres, plastics and biomass
 Char,oil and combustible gases are the products – Used for
energy production
 End product is ash which must be landfilled
 Many types of Pyrolysis processes having different heating
rates and maximum temperatures exist
 Choice depends on the type of mix of solid, liquid and gas
required.
Incineration
 Air is supplied to the waste
 Ash, tar and a gas product are formed
 Gas is utilized by direct combustion to produce heat or steam
for electricity
 Gas can be unclean and hence furnace must be designed to
tolerate this
 Gas can have varying compositions, hence furnace must be
able to handle this.
Plasma Pvrolysis
 This technology gasifies matter in an oxygen-starved
environment to decompose waste materials in to its basic
molecular structure.
 It uses high electrical energy and high temperature created by
an electric arc gasifier.
 This arc breaks down waste primarily into elemental gas and
solid waste in a device called plasma converter.
52
Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF)
 It is usually densified into pellets through
the process of pelletisation.
 The calorific value of RDF pellets can be
around 4000 kcal/ kg
 Enriched fuel may feed for other thermochemical processes like Pyrolysis/
Gasification, apart from Incineration
 pellets can be conveniently stored and
transported.
Recycling Programme
 Recycling is reprocessing of used materials
 Increases the economic value of the waste
 Reduces quantum of waste to be disposed.
54
Important Recycling Material:
Advantages and Drawbacks
Material
Advantage
Aluminum 

Batteries

Concrete 
and
demolition
waste
Drawbacks
Aluminum has a high market
value.
Aluminum recycling requires
significantly less energy than
producing aluminum from ore.

Recycling recovers valuable
heavy metals such as lead,
cadmium and mercury.

Large variation in type and
size of batteries requires
specific recycling processes.
Demolition waste can be

crushed to gravel and reused in
road construction and
landscaping.
Recycled waste is valuable
only if there is a lack of other
construction material.

Separate collection is
important.
Recycling is suitable only if a
processing plant is available.
55
Important Recycling Material:
Advantages and Drawbacks
Material
Glass
Advantage


Organic
waste

Other
metal

Use of recycled glass saves

energy compared with
processing raw material.
Can be recycled indefinitely
because it does not deteriorate
from reprocessing.
Most commonly recycled by

composting or anaerobic
digestion.
Scrap metal has a high market 
value (especially steel, copper,
silver and platinum) and can be
recycled indefinitely.
Drawbacks
Broken glass can contaminate
and eliminate opportunities for
recycling.
Though compost is very
beneficial to depleted soils, it
still has a low market value.
High-value metals (such as
copper and silver) are
incorporated in electronic
devices, but extraction can
cause severe environmental
impacts.
56
Important Recycling Material:
Advantages and Drawbacks
Material
Paper
Advantage


Polyethyle 
ne
terephthal 
ate (PET)
Other

plastic
Electronic 
waste

Paper can be easily recycled;
quality deteriorates.
Recycled paper requires less
energy.
PET can be recycled if
segregated from other waste.
PET has a high market value if
processing plants are available.
Such as polyethylene or
polyvinyl chloride, can be
recycled but has less value
Electronic waste (such as
computers or mobile phones)
contains high value metals.
Electronic items can be
dismantled, reused or recycled.
Drawbacks




Appropriate technologies with
circular processes are
required to protect the
environment.
More ‘downcyling’ than
recycling occurs because
quality decreases with every
processing cycle.
Recycling requires specific
machinery
Metals are often covered with
polyvinyl chloride or resins,
which are often smelted or
burned, causing toxic
emissions.
57
Common Types of Plastics that
may be recycled
Sl.No
Chemical Name
Abbreviation
Typical uses
1
Polyethylene
terephthalate
PETE
Soft drink bottles
2
High-density
polyethylene
HDPE
Milk cartons
3
Polyvinyl Chloride
PVC
Food packaging, wire
insulation and pipe
58
Common Types of Plastics that
may be recycled
Sl.No
Chemical Name
Abbreviation
4
Low-density
polyethylene
LDPE
5
Polypropylene
PP
6
Polystyrene
PS
7
Mixed plastic
Typical uses
Plastic film used for food
wrapping, trash bags, grocery
bags, and baby diapers
Automobile battery casings
and bottle caps
Food packaging, foam cups
and plates, and eating utensils
Fence posts, benches and
pallets
59
Sanitary land Fill
 Sanitary land fill is a systematic disposal
technique especially for the rejects after
processing on daily basis.
60
Essential Components of landfill







liner system at the base and sides of the landfill
leachate collection and control facility
gas collection and control facility
final cover system at the top of the landfill
surface water drainage system
environmental monitoring system
closure and post-closure plan
61
LAND FILL - CROSS SECTION OF BOTTOM LINER
63
Introduction
 Source- Municipal Solid Waste of Thiruvananthapuram
Municipal Corporation (TMC)
 TMC is carrying out door to door collection of segregated
waste during morning hours through Kudumbasree
 It is then transferred to the closed trucks at specific transfer
points at scheduled time and finally transported to the
processing site at Vilappilsala.
64
65
SWM plant at Vilappilsala
 Maximum capacity of the plant is around
300 tons per day
 The plant consists of fully roofed
compost yard, sieving machines,
maturity yard and packing yard
 The plant has a built up area of 60,000
sq ft and another 25,000 sq ft area will
be added shortly.
 There is a weigh bridge that is used to
weigh all vehicles coming to the plant.
 A laboratory is attached to the factory
66
Method adopted
 Windrow Composting
 biodegradable wastes are allowed to form a
windrow, which has trapezoidal shape, in the
specified area by using excavator (Hitachi).
 The size of a windrow will depend on the
nature of the material being composted, and
the reach of the machinery or people
available for making and turning it
 The size of the windrow is 18 x 4 x 1.8 m
 Distance between two windrows is 1.5m
67
68
Compost Plant
69
70
Compost to product
 The next step is mechanized sieving and the main parts of the machine
are:
 Feeder Conveyor (Feeding compartment)
 Primary Separation Unit (First Trommel)
– First rejection belt
– First product conveyor
 Refining trommel i.e. Second trommel
– Second rejection belt
– Second product conveyor
 Common rejection belt
 Hydraulic power packs
71
Line diagram of Mechanised Composting
(Level 1) at Vilappilsala, Thiruvananthapuram
2nd product conveyor
2nd Trommel
1st product conveyor
1st Trommel
2nd rejection belt
Feeder Conveyor
Municipal
Solid Waste
1st rejection belt
Semi Product
Common rejection
belt
72
Line diagram of Mechanised Composting
(Level 2) at Vilappilsala, Thiruvananthapuram
Chute
Rejection belt
Trommel
To landfill
Semi Product
Product conveyor
Bio-manure
73
Manure
 After 45 days, the biodegradable waste becomes fine,
fluffy, earthy material without any putrefying smell
 It is used as a good soil amendment
 It has good water holding capacity
 It makes soil more porous
 It is a rich source of humus
74
75
76
Solid Waste Disposal
Landfill:
TVM Corporation Waste Management Plant - VILAPPILSALA
77
Landfill
78
Auto used for door-to-door collection
Containerized pushcarts
used for door-to-door collection
79
Road Sweeping machine
Closed truck (locally designed)
80
Application of GIS in SWM
Site Suitability Analysis
 Suitable location for solid waste processing plant and/or
land filling
 Suitable location for solid waste Suitable location for solid
waste storage,
 Designing short routes for waste collection
 Creating databases for households that pay and those
who have not paid for the services
 Arranging time tables for trucks to collect waste and
monitoring the truck movement
Thank You

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