1)To which one of the following types of vegetation does rubber

1)To which one of the following types
of vegetation does rubber belong?
Answer: D) Tropical Evergreen
2) Cinchona trees are found in the
areas of rainfall of more than:
a) 100 cm
b) 50 cm
c) 70 cm
d) Less than 50 cm
Answer: A) 100 cm
3) In which of the following states
is the Simlipal bio-reserve located?
a) Punjab
b) Delhi
c) Orissa
d) West Bengal
Answer: c) Orissa
4) Which one of the following bioreserves of India is not included in
the world network of bio-reserves?
a) Manas
b) Nilgiri
c) Gulf of Mannar
d) Nanda Devi
Answer: a) Manas
2i) Define an ecosystem:
Answer: An ecosystem is an area that has a group of
flora and fauna that are interdependent and
interrelated to each other and their environment.
The entirety of this interconnected web of plants,
animals, and their environment is an ecosystem.
2ii) What factors are responsible for the distribution of plants
and animals in India?
1) Relief- the topography and type of land
2) Soil- the type of soil in an area and the
nutrients it contains.
3) Photoperiod- length of daylight.
4) Precipitation- amount of rainfall or snowfall.
5) Temperature- amount of energy present in the
2iii) What is a bio-reserve? Give two examples.
A bio-reserve is an area set aside by the
government for the purpose of protecting the
flora and fauna within its boundaries.
Ex. Sunderbans, Gulf of Mannar, The Nilgiris,
Nanda Devi, Nokrek, Great Nicobar, Manas,
Simlipal, Dihang-Dibang, Dibru Saikhowa,
Agasthyamalai, Kanchenjunga, Pachmari,
2iv) Name two animals having their habitat in tropical and
montane type of vegetation.
elephants, monkeys, lemurs, deer, one-horned
rhinoceri, lions, tigers, pigs.
Kashmir stag, spotted deer, wild sheep, jack
rabbits, Tibetan antelope, yaks, snow leopards,
squirrels, Shaggy horn wild ibex, bears, red
3i) Distinguish between flora and fauna.
Fauna are the animals living in an area,
ecosystem, biome, etc. Whereas the flora are the
plants of that region.
3ii) Distinguish between tropical evergreen forests and
tropical deciduous forests.
Evergreen forests do not shed their leaves all at
once due to the lack of specific dry season.
Deciduous forests shed their leaves for a general
6-8 week period during the dry season.
The evergreen forests generally receive more than
200 cm of rainfall annually where deciduous get
between 70-200cm per annum. Because of this
difference in rainfall, there is a stark difference in
the height of the forests with the evergreens being
much taller.
4) Name different types of vegetation found in India and
describe the vegetation of high altitudes.
The vegetation of India contains the following
Tropical evergreen, tropical deciduous, thorn
forests and scrubs, montane forests, mangrove
The vegetation of higher altitudes (montane region) starts with a wet
temperate forests between 1000-2000m. The prominent trees are broad-leaf
trees such as oaks and chestnuts.
Next are temperate coniferous forests from 1500-3000m with trees such as
Pine, Spruce, and Deodar.
In between these and the alpine vegetation there are some temperate
grasslands. The alpine vegetation usually starts from 3600m with trees such
as Silver fir and Junipers.
Alpine grasslands and scrubs and shrubs occur near the snow line and
further up there tend to only be mosses and lichens in the tundra region.
5) Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered
in India. Why?
Many organisms in India are endangered in India
due to issues relating to the destruction of the
ecosystems by human activities. These activities
include poaching animals, pollution from air,
land, and water forms, invasive or alien species
being introduced to the habitats, and the
destruction of habitats by deforestation and
Global Warming.
6) Why does India have a rich heritage of flora and fauna?
India has a diverse set of climates throughout the
country from the cold deserts of Ladakh to the
tropical islands of Lakshadweep and Andaman and
These differences in climate cause different plants
and animals to take up residence due to the fact that
the climate of a region has a very big impact on the
types of animals and plants a place will have.
The relief differences as well play a major part in the
rise of differentiated species in India. These soil and
topographical differences cause many species of
similar climates to differ as well.

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