Bio 28: Nutrition Instructor: Paul Nagami Laney College

These online slides are meant to
supplement the chalkboard talk given
on February 6th with visual examples.
They are never a replacement for
attendance! They are a broad outline.
Lipids, pt. 2
Feb. 6, 2014
Bio 28: Nutrition
Instructor: Paul Nagami
Laney College
Preference /
From now on, I’ll be doing chalk
talks in class, but uploading slides
with visual examples for
We did a lightning review of the
previous lecture – see the previous
slides for this.
Sources of Fatty Acids
Saturated fats
Palm Oil
Unsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fats
Walnuts + Soy
Functions of Lipids
Store energy in fat cells
Make hormones
Store fat- soluble Insulate the
Make cell membranes
body and organs
from cold
Energy Storage
On average, a person has
about 2,000 kcal of energy
stored as glycogen, a complex
carbohydrate. This is
secondary energy storage,
good for fast burning during
intense exercise.
In contrast, that same
person may have about
100,000 kcal available in
fat (triglycerides)! Fat
serves both as a long-term
energy store and a source of
energy to keep us warm.
Hormone Production
Fatty acids are used to make
prostaglandins, which regulate
inflammation, sensitize us to pain,
and decrease intraocular pressure.
Aspirin blocks production of some
Cholesterol is the basis of steroid
hormones, such as testosterone,
estrogen, and cortisol.
Make Cell Membranes
All of your cells use two layers of phospholipids to retain their
contents! You need fat to make cell membranes!
Store Fat-Soluble Vitamins
The fat-soluble vitamins are A, D, E, and K. Because they can’t
dissolve properly in water, they need to be stored in fatty tissue.
We’ll cover these vitamins more when we get to that chapter!
Example: Vitamin A is
needed for the pigments in
the retinas of your eyes.
One good source of it is
orange vegetables, such as
Coronary Artery Disease
The coronary arteries (labeled in red on the picture) supply
oxygen to your heart muscle. You do not need to know them
If the coronary
arteries get
blocked – for
example, by
plaques – a heart
attack can result
as your heart is
starved for oxygen.
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States,
killing ~600,000 people a year.
Heart Bypass Surgery
When coronary arteries begin to get narrowed, hardened, and/or
blocked, blood vessels from elsewhere in the body can be
transplanted to bypass (skip) the blocked segment or segments.
Single, double, triple, and quadruple bypasses skip one, two,
three, and four arteries, respectively.
This is a delicate and intensive surgery!
In atherosclerosis,
fatty plaques
build up inside
the wall of an
artery, causing it
to harden and
bulge outward.
High levels of
LDL cholesterol
are a major risk
factor for
Atherosclerosis and Stroke
When a piece of a
fatty plaque
breaks off as a clot
(embolus), it can
clog the coronary
arteries and cause
a heart attack – or
it can clog blood
vessels in the
brain, causing a
stroke. About half
of all strokes are
due to
Risk Factors for Heart Disease
• Smoking
• Overweight
• Family history/genetics
• Lack of exercise
• High LDL cholesterol
• Diabetes
• Age (over 55)
Genetic Testing/Counseling
Currently, only some of the variations that predispose people to
heart disease are known well enough for genetic testing.
Genetic testing can’t tell
you whether or not
you’ll have a heart
Genetic testing can tell
you which drugs might
not be as effective for
you, and can tell you
about some risk factors.
Does this raise privacy
issues? What about
issues of psychological
Extra Credit
For 3 points of extra credit,
take the heart health quiz in
Chapter 4 of your text and
turn in your answers and

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