SP1 More than Moore

EEE8052 Special Topics in Optoelectronics and Photonics
Microelectronics for the real world:
“Moore” versus “More than Moore”
IEEE 2009 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference (CICC)
John P. Kent
Presented by Juree Hong
 Introduction
 “More-than-Moore” : functional diversification
- Power over ethernet: XtreMOS
- More-than-Moore in automotive applications
- Microbolometer
- Bio-field effect transistors for medical applications (Lap on a chip)
- System-in-package (SiP) and System-on-chip (SoC) solutions
 Summary and Conclusion
 References
Moore’s law & significant improvements in economy
Large R&D investment
For more than 40 years, the semiconductor industry
ability to follow Moore’s law has been the entire of
a virtuous cycle: through transistor scailing
 Better performance to cost ratio of products
 An exponential growth of the semiconductor market
The virtuous circle of the
semiconductor industry
“More-than Moore”
Incorporation into devices of functionalities that do not necessarily
scale according to "Moore's Law“, but provide additional value in
different ways. The "More-than-Moore" approach allows for the
non-digital functionalities to migrate from the system board-level
into the package (SiP) or onto the chip (SoC).
A new tend of functional diversification : “More-than Moore”
CMOS in reducing the
critical dimensions while keeping
the electrical field constant!!
The CMOS transistor : the basic building block for logic devices –represents the digital content of an
integrated circuit.
However, many microelectronic products will have non-digital functionalities as well.
The “More-than-Moore” is to incorporate digital and non-digital functionality into compact system.
A new tend of functional diversification : “More-than Moore”
MtM technologies focus on the interface between “Analog” and the “Digital” world.
Interfacing the digital and analog world will require:
 High voltage
 High power
 RF technologies
In can be realized by intergrating MEMs, sensors, and actuators either by SiP or SoC
“More-than Moore” Innovation driven technology roadmap
Product innovation in MtM technologies is
differenciated by circuit design, architecture,
embedded software and unique process technology.
These MtM products can be manufactured in proven
technologies for high reliability.
Some of the MtM products enabled by innovation
and functional diversification.
A new
virtuous cycle
More-than Moore: Functional diversification
MtM innovation
1. POE (power over
High voltage, Low Ron,
Cable discharges, EOS
High voltage device
architecture, robust
ESD protection
2. Motor drivers,
sensors, actuators
Harsh environment
Thick power metal to
distribute heat, Bond
8mm wire to address
3. Micro-bolometer
Operation at ambient
temperature with low
dark noise
New sensing material
integrated into CMOS
4. Bio sensors
(Lab on a chip)
Integration of bio
sensing materials in
microelectronics with
bio sensing materials
5. Demand for dense
Dense memory
integration in CMOS
(System in package)
More-than Moore innovation (1)
Power over ethernet: XtreMOS
XtreMOS cross section
Power over Ethernet (PoE)
The ability for the LAN switching infrastructure to
provide power over a copper ethernet cable to an
endpoint or powered devices.
MtM innovation enables POE.
A 1D silicon limit  XtreMOS devices
Low Ron, by a factor of 3
More-than Moore innovation (2)
“More than Moore” in automotive applications
The applications of electronics in a car
Growth trend in automotive electronics
Semiconductor electronics contents are more than 50 % of the total electronics by value.
Challenging requirements
High voltages to drive motors, relays, communication
interfaces, sensors, and optical drivers
Extreme mechanical stress such as vibrations
Integrated technologies such as non-volatile memory and
significant analog and digital integration
Robust environment (high temperature to 200 °C)
High reliability (<1 part per million failure rate
Thick top metal
& 8 mm wire
More-than Moore innovation (3)
Microbolometer: IR sensors for automotive, military,
industrial and consumer applications
Infrared light
Diode type micro-bolometers
(128x128 array)
Infrared imaging for military applications / on quantum detection
– Operated at liquid nitrogen temperature  Restricted use of this technology
An innovation in microbolometer technology
– Microbolometer : a specific type of bolometer used as a detector in a thermal camera
– New materials in the CMOS process : infrared thermal detection at room temperature
– Low cost infrared imaging system for automotive, industrial applications
More-than Moore innovation (3)
Microbolometer: IR sensors for automotive, military,
industrial and consumer applications
A bolometer operation
– Infrared radiation  absorbed infrared
radiation into an infrared absorbing material
 temperature rise  resistance change
– Bolometer resistance change makes the
current change  read out current change
by a read-out integrated circuit (ROIC)
Vanadium oxide (Vox)
– One of the materials used to detect
temperature changes in bolometer
– Wavelength range : 9 – 14 μm
A block diagram of a complete sensor circuit
– CMOS process technology as a ROIC and an
integrated micro-electro-mechanical system
More-than Moore innovation (3)
Microbolometer: IR sensors for automotive, military,
industrial and consumer applications
Fabrication of microbolometer
– A combined MEMS/CMOS process
– Various interconnect elements of the pixel
: readout contact, leg, and a bridge
– Increasing beyond military use
– Automotive safety, security, consumer electronics
More-than Moore innovation (4)
Bio-Field effect transistors (FETs) for medical applications
Lab on chip developed by NASA
Microfluidic bio-molecule detector
ISFET built on a CMOS process flow
Lab on a chip
– A device that integrates one or several laboratory functions on a single chip of only millimeters
to a few square centimeters in size with the handling of extremely small fluid volumes
Ion sensing field effect transistor (ISFET)
– Ion sensitive materials as a gate
– Ion concentration change  threshold voltage change  change in transistors’ I-V characteristics
Quick diagnostic is possible with portable Lab-on-Chip.
More-than Moore innovation (5)
System-in-package (SiP) and system-on-chip (SoC) and
solutions to conventional scaling
Circuit component in a 3D SiP
Programmable Systems on Chip Lab
Innovations in packaging : System-in-package (SiP)
– A SiP optionally contain passives, MEMS, optical components and other packages and devices.
Integrating multiple circuits into a single chip : System-on-chip (SoC)
– In the MtM we may want to emphasize that “a single integrated circuit” is in fact monolithic
(single die) and that, consequently, all components (functions) have to be manufactured in a
single (CMOS-compatible) process technology.
More-than Moore innovation (5)
System-in-package (SiP) and system-on-chip (SoC) and
solutions to conventional scaling
Low cost solutions
– For the continued improvement in
density, performance, and size
SiP provides advantages over SoC in
most markets.
SiP technology
– Wafer-level packaging
– Die stacking
– Through-silicon vias (TSV)
– Embeded actives and passives
*ITRS meeting, 2007
SiP provides a solution to achieve cost effective functional diversification
More-than Moore innovation (5)
System-in-package (SiP) and system-on-chip (SoC)
solutions to conventional scaling
SiP requirements
Small form factors
High functional density
Large memory capacity
High reliability
Low package cost
Rapid time-to-market
Wireless connectivity
Extensive packages
The highest level of integration is achieved through 3-D packaging.
More-than Moore innovation (5)
System-in-package (SiP) and system-on-chip (SoC)
solutions to conventional scaling
SiP Challenges
① Wafer thinning : 8 μm by 2015
② Reliability
Coherent crack formation, interfacial delamination,
voids and pore formation, material decmposition
Back-side integrated fluidic heat sink
③ Thermal dissipation issue
④ Signal and power integrity and shielding
Cross talk, impedance discontinuities, and timing skew
⑤ Testing of SiP
Fine pitch capabilities, low cost, no damage
Pre-packaging test, electrical test, assembly of chip,
functional test of the packaged chip
Without and with metallic shield
Summary and conclusion
Enabling Moore’s law requires large R&D investments. Overall R&D spending by
semiconductor companies worldwide increased at an annual average rate of 10%.
Thus keeping up with scaling is becoming expensive and unaffordable.
However, a new trend of functional diversification is emerging that does not
necessarily scale but provides additional value to the customer: “More-than-Moore”
This approach allows the development of new products through innovation in circuit
design, process modules architecture, embedded software, unique process
technology and packaging solutions.
Packaging advances (SiP and SOC) allow non-digital functions such as RF, power
control, passive components, sensors and actuators to migrate from the system
board level into a package level implementation.
However, 3D level SiP integration has many challenges such as power dissipation,
noise shielding, reliability and testing. These challenges have to be resolved before
SiP technology can meet its potential.
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P. Moens et al, “XtreMOS, the first integrated power device breaking the silicon
limit”, IEDM, 2006, p919.
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M.S. Bakir, B. Dang and J. Meindl, IEEE, CICC, 2007

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