Global Trends in Bioplastics

Report
Global Trends in
Bioplastics
Boris A. Miksic, FNACE®
Cortec Corporation/EcoCortec
Overview
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Bioplastics –terminology
Bioplastics market – trends
Disposal
Certification
Conclusion
“Traditional” plastic
• Almost entirely derived from nonrenewable, fossil sources
• These are artificial materials and nature does
not know how to handle them
Problem
… is all around
us!
4
What does plastic waste pollution look like?
Coast of Dubrovnik/Croatia polluted by plastic materials discarded at sea, 2009
Recycling and energy efficiency - statistics
• The term "bioplastics" refers to a biodegradable plastics
and/or plastics derived from renewable resources (the
definition from European Bioplastics)
• Interest in bio-materials has increased significantly due to
concerns related to global climate change.
Bioplastic
Plastics: 265 M tons (2010) – Plastics Europe
Bioplastics: 0.724 M tons
biodegradable (non renewable resources) 428 000 t
plastics from renewable resources 296 000 t
Source/base: renewable or not renewable
Material: biodegradable or not biodegradable
Development of bioplastics through history
Renewable sources - nonbiodegradable
• Historically, plastic was made from renewable
resources / there was no petrochemical industry
1869. nitrocellulose – Hyatt billiard balls
1897. galalith –first Zagreb’s gramophone
panel manufactured by Penkala
• Today : bio-polyethylene
What is biodegradable plastic?
• Biodegradation is degradation caused
by biological activity, especially activity of the
enzymes
Biodegradable plastics
Considering the source/base we distinguish:
• natural polymers (PHA)
• modified natural polymers
(viscose, methyl cellulose)
• synthetic polymers (PLA,polyesters)
What is compostable plastic?
Compostable plastic is one that meets all scientifically
recognized standards of compostabilty
regardless of the origin of carbon.
European norm
is EN 13432,
and USA norm is
ASTM D6400
ASTM D6400 – Main Factors
• 1. Mineralization
• 90 percent conversion to carbon dioxide, water
and biomass through the action of microorganisms
• The same rate of degradation as other organic
waste (ie. leaves, grass ...)
• Time period of 180 days or less
• 2. Fragmentation
• Not more than 10% of the original dry weight of test material shall
fail to pass through a 2 mm fraction sieve.
• 3. The impact on the environment
• No negative impact on flora and fauna
Biodegradable vs. compostable?
•Compostable plastic is a subset of biodegradable plastic that will
decompose in the conditions and time frames during composting
process
•Compostable plastic is always biodegradable
•Biodegradable plastic is not always compostable
What is bio-based
plastic ?
• Can be natural polymer or synthetic plastic made
from organic macromolecules that are derived from
biological resources
• To be classified as a bio-based material it must be of
organic origin and contain a certain percentage of
new carbon derived from biological resources
• This definition is the base of ASTM D6866
U
Comparison of plastic and steel
manufacturing through history
Bioplastic market
Development of bioplastic market main drivers
• Technical properties and functionality is selling
• High consumer acceptance (eco marketing)
• Organic recycling is a cost-efficient, new recycling
option
Trenutno stanje
Bioplastics in Europe ( purpose)
Market share of bioplastics by application
use in 2011.
World production capacity of bioplastics
by material type in 2011
Production capacities of bioplastics in the world in 2011.
and forecast by 2015.
Production capacities of bioplastics in the
world by 2015.
Trendovi
The share of bioplastics in the global plastics market will
record substantial growth in the following years
(planned annual growth of 44%)
Disposal
Methods of disposal after use of bioplastics
Ideal closed circle
• Renewable raw materials for plastics.
• Organic Recycling (Composting) - new option.
• CO2 Recycling - for climate protection.
Developing Global Legislation Around Biobased Plastics
Italy - first country in the world that banned the use of polyethylene
bags (January 1,2011)
Certification
Proces of certification
• Variety of different materials
• What kind of criteria do we need?
• Certification as an instrument of market competition
 We have a defined system of certification for
biodegradability and compostability of materials.
Certification
• Certification - procedure by which a third party gives
written assurance that a product, process or service
conforms to specified requirements (EN 45020:2006
standardization and related activities)
• Well-defined process in which a certification organization
confirms the property of a plastic material, intermediate
or product.
• Biodegradable plastics is not easy to distinguish from nondegradable plastics.
• Other ways of labelling are required in order for
bioplastics to be used and disposed properly.
What Is Fueling The Growth of
Bioplastics?
 Petroleum supplies are dwindling while demand
for oil-based goods is rising
 For every 4 barrels of oil used, only 1 new barrel
is discovered.
 Petrochemical-based plastics consume about 2.5
billion barrels of oil annually.
 Supplies will run short within the next 20 to 100
years.
• Governments and consumers are demanding
action to reduce dependence on oil.
• Increasing concerns over global warming,
environmental pollution, toxic affects of some
residual monomers and additives are driving
legislation and consumer “backlash” against
conventional plastics
More about the benefits
of bioplastics..
• Reduces dependence on fossil raw materials
• The concept of biorefinery-regional economy that has
a source in bio-mass
• Programs of Corporate Social Resposibility (CSR)
• In the long run - economic perspective
 Conventional plastics will record high increase in prices
(50-80% in 2 years)
 Bioplastics- enormous potential for savings
Not If…But When
“It took 125 years to use the
first trillion barrels of oil.
We’ll use the next trillion in
30 years.
So, why should you care?”
-Chevron Ad
UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB
FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND NAVAL ARCHITECTURE
BORIS MIKSIC
EFFECT OF EXTRUSION PARAMETERS ON PERFORMANCE
CHARACTERISTICS OF BIODEGRADABLE FILMS
DOCTORAL THESIS
Supervisor:
Dr. Sc. Mladen Sercer, professor
Zagreb, 2012.
Thank you!

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