Energy in Ireland

Report
Electricity Generation, Distribution and
Supply in Ireland
Bob Hanna
SEI
24 September 2003
Electricity Generation,
Distribution and Supply in Ireland
• How much electricity is generated?
• Fuel mix for generation
• Structure of the electricity supply system
• Generating Stations
• Efficiency
• Suppliers
• Emissions
How Much Electricity is
Generated?
• Installed Capacity is about 4,700 MW
• Peak Demand over 4,000 MW
• Instantaneous Power varies between 1,200 MW and
4,000 MW
• Electricity Generated per annum c. 22 TWh (22,000
GWh)
Generation Fuel Mix
Generation Fuel Mix
ESB Power Stations - Thermal
Station
Bellacorick
Shannonbridge
Lanesboro
Moneypoint
Great Island
Marina
Aghada
Poolbeg
Tarbert
North Wall
West
1st Qtr
2nd Qtr
3rd Qtr
4th Qtr
Capacity (MW)
40
125
85
915
240
115
525
1,020
620
266
Fuel Type
Peat
Peat
Peat
Coal
Oil
Gas
Gas
Gas/Oil
Oil
Gas/Oil
ESB Power Stations - Hydro
Station
Ardnacrusha
Pollaphuca
Golden Falls
Leixlip
Carrigadrohid
Inniscarra
Cliff
Cathleen's Falls
Clady
Turlough Hill (pumped storage)
Capacity (MW)
86
30
4
4
8
19
20
45
4
292
Independent Power Producers
•Edenderry Power
120 MW
Peat
•Synergen
400 MW
Gas
•Huntstown
343 MW
Gas
Generation Market Shares
2005
18%
ESB
22%
60%
Viridian/NIE
Others/Independents
Forecast All-Ireland Generation 2005
Participant
ESB Power Gen (RoI)
Renewables/CHP/SSG (RoI)
NIE contracted capacity (NI)
Synergen (RoI)
Huntstown (RoI)
Dungarven (RoI)
Capacity released from NIE
contracts (NI)
New Entrant (NI)
Uncontracted Moyle
Interconnector (NI)
Other uncontracted (NI)
Total
Installed
Capacity
(MW)
4394
920
1614
400
283
110
77
Proportion
of Total
(%)
50.7
10.6
18.7
4.6
3.3
1.3
0.9
400
350
4.6
4
110.5
8658.5
1.3
100%
LOGUESTOWN
COOLKEERAGH
COLERAINE
LIMAVADY
KILTOY
LISAGHMORE
LETTERKENNY
BALLYMENA
STRABANE
MAGHERAFELT
BINBANE
POWER STN WEST RATHGAEL
HANNAHSTOWN
CASTLEREAGH
LISBURN
DUNGANNON
CATHALEEN'S
CLIFF
FALL
BALLYLUMFOR
KILROOT.
ANTRIM
NORTHERN
IRELAND
GOLAGH
LARNE
KELLS
WARINGSTOWN
BALLYAHINCH
BANBRIDGE
TANDRAGEE
ENNISKILLEN
LISDRUM
SLIGO
TAWNAGHMORE
BELLACORICK
NEWRY
MOY
ARIGNA
DUNDALK
SHANKILL
LOUTH
CARRICK-ONSHANNON
FLAGFORD
CASTLEBAR
MEATH HILL
GILRA
LANESBORO
DRYBRIDGE
NAVAN
RICHMOND
PLATIN
KNOCKUMBER
MULLINGAR
CLOON
RHODE
MAYNOOTH
CASHLA
GALWAY
THORNSBERRY
SHANNONBRIDGE
BLAKE
FERBANE
SOMERSET
GLASMORE
WOODLAND
ATHLONE
FINGLAS
GRANGE
NORTH WALL
RINAWADE POOLBEG
SHELLYBANKS
INCHICORE
CARRICKMINES
NEWBRIDGE KILTEEL
FASSAROE
DUNSTOWN POLLAPHUCA
DALLOW
TURLOUGH
HILL
PORTLAOISE
IKERRIN
ENNIS
CARLOW
TULLABRACK
DRUMLINE
PROSPECT
MONEYPOINT
TARBERT
CASTLEFARM
ARDNACRUSHA
MUNGRET
MONETEEN
THURLES
AHANE
KILLONAN
KILKENNY
AUGHINISH
CRANE
LIMERICK
RATHKEALE
TRIEN
CAHIR
TRALEE
DOON
ANNER
CHARLEVILLE
WEXFORD
BALLYDINE
WATERFORD
GREAT ISLAND
BUTLERSTOWN
MALLOW
KNOCKEARAGH
BARRYMORE
KNOCKRAHA
KILBARRY
MIDLETON
INNISCARRA
MACROOM
MARINA
TRABEG
AGHADA
CARRIGADROHID
RAFFEEN
BRINNY
BANDON
DUNMANWAY
SHELTON
ABBEY
KELLIS
DUNGARVAN
ARKLOW
The ESB system
comprises a
400/220/110kV
network with
generation distributed
around the country but
with a significant
proportion
concentrated in the
Dublin area.
ESB Network Issues
•
•
•
•
•
•
Planning Difficulties for O/H LInes
Significant Low Voltage + Congestion Problems
Capex Constraints (~ €0.5 Billion)
“Shallow” Connection Policy
Delayed Access for New Entrants
Inadequate Generation Margins
Efficiency Considerations
• Conventional Thermal Power Plant:
30 – 36%
• Large Open Cycle GT Plant:
36%
• Large CCGT Plant:
55%
• Medium Scale CHP Plant:
80%
(inc. heat)
Efficiency of Total Electricity
System
Efficiency of Electricity Supply
36%
35%
34%
33%
32%
31%
30%
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Electricity Suppliers
• The market is 40% open (threshold is 1 GWh per annum)
• Approximately 40 licensed suppliers!
• 4 main competitors to ESB Supply:
•
Energia
•
ESB Independent Energy
•
BGE
•
Airtricity
kg CO2/kWh
Electricity GWh
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
1990
1989
1988
1987
1986
1985
1984
1983
1982
1981
1980
CO2/kWh of Electricity Generated
1
0.95
0.9
18000
16000
0.85
14000
0.8
12000
0.75
10000
0.7
8000
Electricity Demand (GWh)
CO2 Emissions per kWh of
Electricity Generated
22000
20000
Energy Related CO2
Emissions by Mode of
Energy Application
18
16
14
Mt CO2
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
1990
1995
Transport
2000
Electricity
2001
Thermal
Relative Cost of CO2 Reduction
Measures
Service
Strength of
Demand
Growth
CO2
Intensity
Relative
Cost of
Reduction*
Electricity
++
+++
1
Heat
+
++
10
Transport
+++
+++
5
* Climate Change Strategy
Summary of Key Parameters
• Diversified fuel mix (but increasingly less so)
• Almost totally isolated system (but increasingly less so)
• Long overhead lines at low TX or DX voltages
• Transmission constraints
• Generation shortage
• Price!
• Choice of Suppliers
• Electricity focus for Emissions Reductions

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