Text Structures Informational Text Pre-assessment Your teacher will place you in small groups. Each group will receive a piece of chart paper and a marker. Your group will have 3 minutes to write down everything you know about text structures in informational text. If you are stuck, think about what words/phrases come to mind when you think about text structures. After 3 minutes, each group will share out. Learning Target Let’s deconstruct today’s learning target: I can explain how authors organize text and how the individual parts of a text (e.g. sections, chapters) contribute to the overall development of ideas. Guided Notes Directions: As your teacher provides you with information about text structures, you will fill in your Guided Notes sheet. Be sure to raise your hand if you have any questions, relevant comments, or connections to make. What are text structures? Different types of informational passages have different text structures. Text structures are organizational patterns. Authors use certain text structures to help their audience better understand the information presented. What are the types of informational text structures? The most common are CAUSE AND EFFECT, COMPARE/CONTRAST, PROBLEM AND SOLUTION, and CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER. CAUSE AND EFFECT Characteristics describes effect(s) a reason and its CAUSE AND EFFECT signal words/phrases Effect As a result Because Consequently For this reason If…then Since Therefore COMPARE/CONTRAST Characteristics Compares and contrasts specific elements of two or more things COMPARE/CONTRAST signal words/phrases Alike As opposed to Different In common On the other hand Similar PROBLEM AND SOLUTION Characteristics Describes a problem and its solution(s) PROBLEM AND SOLUTION signal words/phrases Affect As a result Because Consequently For this reason If…then Since therefore CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER characteristics Sequence, or order based on time Chrono = time CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER signal words/phrases First Next Last Then After Before Later Social Studies and Science Texts Most texts in SOCIAL STUDIES tend to be structured in chronological order or cause and effect. Most texts in SCIENCE tend to be organized in problem/solution. Let’s Practice Read the following passage. Determine the text structure and explain how it contributes to the overall development of ideas. In the game of volleyball, players hit a ball over a long net that stretches across a court. There are twelve players on the court at one time—six players per team. The game of tennis is similar to volleyball in that a ball is hit over a long net on a court, but this is all the two sports have in common. In tennis, the ball is hit with a racquet, and only two or four players are on the court at one time. In your small groups, discuss the following prompts. You may use your guided notes as a resource. 1. Determine the text structure of the passage. 2. Explain what clues led you to determine that text structure. Now it’s your turn! Your teacher will distribute an Informational Text Structures practice sheet to you. Read each of the passages, highlight signal words/phrases, and determine the text structure for each one. Be prepared to discuss as a class. Day 2: “Macaroni and Cheese: An American Classic” Independently read “Macaroni and Cheese: An American Classic.” Highlight signal words/phrases as you read. Carefully respond to the questions that follow.