SEXUAL VIOLENCE TASK FORCE Southern California University California State University, Fullerton Marisol Cardenas ● Lupe Mendoza ● Raquel Pina-Holmstrom ● Adelita Rivera Outline Introduction Definitions History Statistics Goals & Learning Outcomes • Theory Sexual Violence Response and Prevention Center Changing the Culture Policy Guidelines Crisis Management Cycle Social Media Introduction With the nationwide increase of rates in sexual violence on college campuses, Southern California University (SCU) has committed to supporting and empowering survivors of sexual violence, while educating and encouraging bystanders to take an active role in preventing sexual violence on campus. The Sexual Violence Response and Prevention Center (SVRPC) is our response to assisting survivors, promoting awareness, and ensuring the prevention of sexual violence at CSU. SVRPC will follow a five-phase crisis management model as a continuous process of learning for everyone on campus. The Center will provide facts, strategies, and resources to encourage dialogue between everyone on campus and assist in the prevention of sexual violence. We are committed to enhancing advocacy on campus and promoting a safe campus for everyone. Definitions Consent: A free of coercion explicit agreement between individuals to involve in sexual activity, based on full awareness, mental ability and maturity of the individuals involved. Sexual Violence: The forcing of another person to engage in any sexual activity through the use of intimidation and the explicit or implicit threat of further violence if one’s advances are refused. For many men sexual violence occurs as a result of sexual jealousy. (Rainbow Services, 2011) HISTORY Rates of sexual violence among college students are higher than national rates (Garcia, 2012). Sexual violence such as rape in early America was based on “racial hierarchies” (Block, 2006). Today, we know that sexual violence is a practice that continues to happen in society regardless of gender, social class, or ethnicity. According to Kendall (2010) acquaintance rape on college campuses “takes the form of gang or party rape” (p. 181). As student affairs professionals we need to take an active role in promoting student learning and development (American College Personnel Association, 1996), including addressing and preventing sexual violence on campus. Student affairs professionals face the challenge of implementing services and programs for everyone on campus to educate and create a violence-free, safe environment for all. Statistics According to NISVS (2010) report: Females compose the vast majority of sexual violence victims with nearly 1 in 5 females being raped during their lifetime, with 92% of the victims knowing their perpetrator. Males are also at risk with 1 in 71 males reporting been raped during their lifetime, with 85% of the victims knowing their perpetrator. Most perpetrators are male, with over 90% of both female and male survivors identifying their perpetrator as male. Goals & Learning Outcomes The goal of the Sexual Violence Task Force is to develop campus services, programs, and procedures to achieve the following learning outcomes: 1. PWiBAT define sexual consent and locate support resources on and off campus for survivors. 2. PWiBAT differentiate facts of sexual violence from myths. 3. PWiBAT identify accuser characteristics and recognize the legal implications and proceedings for the accuser. 4. PWiBAT formulate and analyze new approaches to support sexual violence survivors. 5. PWiBAT identify and analyze bystander approaches to intervene and advocate when witnessing sexual violence misconduct. Kolb The first learning outcome educates participants on definitions of sexual consent and provides resources offered on and off campus. This is an application of Kolb’ (1984) theory of experiential learning. The events designed by the task force aims to move participants from understanding to advocating through concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation. King & Kitchener Implementation of Theory The second learning outcome addresses stereotypes and/or biases we know about sexual violence. Participants will reflect on the facts about sexual violence on campus. This outcome addresses King & Kitchener’s (1994) quasi-reflective thinking where participants are challenged to look past the socially constructed stereotypes and myths about sexual violence. The task force committee aims to provide multiple opportunities for participants to recognize the facts about sexual violence through sexual violence awareness week and other events held on and off campus. (Evans et al., 2010) Perry Berkowitz & Bronfenbrenner Marcia The third learning outcome adopts Perry’s (1981) theory of intellectual and ethical development. The goal is for participants to identify characteristics of sexual violence offenders. Individuals will move from a dualistic stage where meaning making is viewed dichotomously to a commitment position where individuals will understand multiple characteristics and ensure rights of those accused of sexual violence. The fourth learning outcome is based on Marcia’s (1980) theory on ego identity. Participants will formulate and analyze approaches that moves them from a foreclosure status to an achieved status, resulting in a shift in paradigm regarding sexual violence on campus. The fifth learning outcome addresses different approaches on how campus community members can be part of a campus culture that promotes awareness and advocacy of sexual violence. Berkowitz (2005) social norms research on “pluralistic ignorance” shows that bystanders incorrectly perceive attitudes and behaviors of peers and other individuals engaging in unhealthy behaviors. Utilizing Bronfenbrenner’s (1989) ecological systems theory we can inform participants on the role bystanders play in society and educate them on the importance of taking an active role in the prevention of sexual violence on campus. (Evans et al., 2010) Sexual Violence Response & Prevention Center SVRPC aligns with the mission of SCU in its commitment to social justice and advocacy and in promoting a supportive learning environment for all on and off campus. Through adopting a five-phase crisis management multi-faceted approach that focuses on a continuous process of learning for everyone on campus, SVRPC intents to create a practical preventive protocol, provide education on sexual violence and related issues, and act as an agent to empower and inspire advocates to social justice. Through services, programs, and events offered on campus and through social media, we will assist survivors, promote awareness, and ensure the prevention of sexual violence at CSU. Crisis Management Cycle The SVRPC model ensures a continuous process of learning in crisis management on campus. The model includes five-phases: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Prevention & Mitigation Planning Response Recovery Learning Adapted from Harper, Paterson & Zdziarski, 2006) Prevention & Mitigation Step 1 • • • • • • • • • Sexual Violence Response and Prevention Center (SVRPC) Sexual Violence Awareness Week (April 1-5) Sexual Violence 101 for students, staff, and faculty Faculty and Staff Sexual Violence Ally Training Bystander Intervention Ally Training SVRPC website End the Cycle of Silence Facebook page End the Cycle of Silence Twitter page Cultural Competency Training Planning Step 2 • • • • • Southern California University Clery Report Sexual Violence Task Force Partnerships between the university and the community Collaboration between different entities at the university Stakeholders: students, survivors, staff, faculty, campus clubs and organizations, shelters and prevention centers in the community, campus police and community law enforcement and the community Response Step 3 • • • • • • • • • • • “Bring back the night” “Sole Survivor” display Teal Ribbon Campaign Vagina Monologues Survivor Speaker Nights Campus Forum open to the community 24 Hour Hotline Emergency crisis shelter in the community SVRPC website End of Cycle of Silence Facebook page End of the Cycle Twitter page Recovery Step 4 • Counseling and Psychological Services (CAPS) • Campus and community survivor focus groups • Individual and group counseling services for survivors and those accused of sexual violence • Education groups for survivors and those accused of sexual violence • Support groups that may include the survivors and those accused of sexual violence support systems. Learning Step 5 • Assessment of learning outcomes of programs, services, and events • Campus-wide surveys • Overall evaluation of the center • Identifying best practices of programs, services, and events offered on campus. • Strengthen partnerships with the local community. • Strengthen the collaboration between different entities at the university Changing the Culture The Sexual Violence Task Force also recognizes that SVRPC can promote change in the campus culture of SCU through… Education- the truth about sexual violence will replace the myth that is so prevalent in our campus culture and society. Victim blaming needs to come to a stop. Peer educators can challenge the college culture that tolerates rape by partnering with the SVRPC to present workshops on community values and educating students on how to be active bystanders. Safety and respect are vital to make this change. A climate survey is important in seeing the bigger picture of how students feel and what they need in order to feel safe on campus. Assessment of current policies and practice can aid in providing a safer environment for our students. Campus policies need to be reviewed and updated to ensure university, administrators, faculty, and staff have the means to properly handle a crisis situation. Policy Revisions The following are areas that would require SCU policies regarding sexual violence to be implemented and/or updated. • Study Abroad or Joint Programs: To ensure the safety of our students abroad, partnering institution need to be equipped to provide the support and resources students need in the case of a sexual violence crime. As the primary institution, survivors need to be aware that we will advocate for them on their arrival. • Amnesty Policy: Survivors should be able to report sexual violence without the fear of castigation due to a possible student conduct violation (i.e. alcohol) or fear of documented status being revealed. • Student Health Services should be able to provide Rape Kits to survivors so that if at any point they would like to prosecute they can have that option. Guidelines SCU is dedicated to enacting a sexual assault policy that students should be aware of. • Students need to know that if they have been sexually assaulted it is not their fault. They need to be assured that there is help readily accessible. • Students have the option to report a sexual assault to law enforcement. Contact information should be readily accessible. • Students should be encouraged to seek medical attention. Campus resources should be readily accessible. • Finally, students should be given time for their wellbeing. Students need to be informed that it is never to late to seek help. Website Social Media Twitter: Follow us @taskforce2014 Facebook page: Visit us at https://www.facebook.com/task.force.144734 References Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education. (2012). CAS professional standards for higher education (8th ed.). Washington: DC: CAS Publications. Evans, N. J., Forney, D. S., Guido, F. M., Patton, L. D., & Renn, K. A. (2010). Student development in college: Theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Kendall, D. (2010). Social Problems in a diverse society (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Whitmer, B. (1997). The violence mythos. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.