Paul Welham

By Paul Welham
So what is it?
The Landscape Observatory was the main
project for a Masters in Landscape and
Environmental Arts.
As such it came into existence due to a number
of personal passions, an interest in discovering a
fresh and informed approach to how we interact
with the landscape.
Due to its origins it also has some limitations,
West (1778) Guide to the
Lakes promoting the
Picturesque and
introducing Viewing
Pilot Study?
Lang and Baumann (2002)
Hotel Everland
Fuller (1968) Geodesic
Domes and modular
economic design
Daniels and Boster (1976)
Scenic judgement
depends upon landscape
properties and
judgemental criteria of
Richardson (2005)
Psychotopia – concept of
place as experienced by
the observer
Tilley (1994) use of
understanding cultural
landscapes from dwelling
in them
Knapp and Smith (2005)
the role of facilitator
critical for people to get
most from solo experience
Bobilya, McAvoy and Kalish
(2005) facilitator creates
expectations for significant
experience, however
unique to individual
Findings and Analysis
• Facilitator intervention not detrimental to
• All participants even with prior experience of
solos found it novel and informative.
• Participants found themselves engaging in
activities they would not normally find time for.
• Duration could be shortened and still achieve
similar levels of immersion.
“The view takes on a certain charm at dusk as
everything slowly turns to a beautiful blue and
green haze, I watch a solitary bat in flight for a
• To the core purpose of providing a space that
would allow people to gain a deeper
appreciation of the landscape by being
embedded in it. it is evident, even with the
limited number of participants, that this was
• The need for further experimentation around
location, shelter, resources, duration and
Future Participation
• Duration can be explored both shorter and
longer experiences.
• For shorter durations a more simplified
• Better structured data
gathering and analysis.
• Bibilya, A.J., McAvoy, L.H. & Kalisch, K.R. (2005) ‘The power of the
instructor in the solo experience: An empirical study and some nonempirical questions’, Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor
Learning, 5 (1), pp. 35-50.
• Baldwin, J. (1996) Bucky Works; Buckminster Fuller’s Ideas for Today. John
Wiley & Sons: New York.
• Daniel, T.C. and Boster, R.S. (1976) Measuring landscape esthetics: The
scenic beauty estimation method. Research Paper Rm-167: USDA Forest
• Knapp, C.E. & Smith, T.E. (eds.) (2005) Exploring the power of solo, silence,
and solitude. Association for Experiential Education: Boulder.
• Lang, S. and Bauman, D. (2002) Hotel Everland. Available at: (Accessed: 10 February 2012).
• Richardson, T. (2005) Vista; The culture and politics of gardens. In:
Richardson, T. & Kingsbury, N. (ed). London: Frances Lincoln Ltd. P131-158
• Tilley, C. (1997) A Phenomenology of Landscape: Places, Paths and
Monuments. London: Berg Publishers.
• West, T (2008) A guide to the lakes of Cumberland, Westmoreland and
Lancashire. Unipress: Cumbria.
Paul Welham
Outdoor Studies QG
University Of Cumbria

similar documents