Phil Brandhuber PhD - Multi

Report
Colorado ZLD Pilot
An Update
Phil Brandhuber PhD
HDR Engineering
Karla Kinser PE
MWH
Concentrate Disposal Options






Surface water body
Municipal sewer
Deep well injection
Land application
Evaporation pond
Brine minimization/zero
liquid discharge
Project Update
 Colorado Project
- Demonstration of Membrane Zero Liquid Discharge
for Drinking Water Systems
 Pilot test brine minimization technologies at two
locations in Colorado
 Poster at this conference last year
 Today discuss technology assessment and
selection process.
What Minimization Technologies are
Available?




Thermal
Pressure Driven
Electric Potential
Alternative
Thermal Technologies
Technology
Brine
Concentrator
Brine Crystallizer
Spray Dryers
Claimed
Overall
Recovery
90% to 95%
Comments
Up to 98%
• Mature technology
• High capital and energy cost
• Seasonal use
• Low capital
• Energy usage similar to brine
concentrator
None
• Mature technology
• High capital and energy cost
Pressure Driven Technologies
Technology
Dual RO with Intermediate
Chemical Demineralization
Dual RO with Pellet
Softener (PS) or Fluidized
Bed Crystallizer (FBC)
Claimed
Overall
Recovery
90% - 98%
Comments
90% - 98%
• Combination of mature
technologies.
• Increased chemical dosage
and sludge disposal required.
Seeded Slurry Precipitation 90% - 95%
and Recycle (SPARRO)
• Combination of mature
technologies.
• Increased chemical dosage
and sludge disposal required.
• Proprietary technology.
• Limited full-scale applications
for municipal water treatment.
Pressure Driven Technologies
Technology
Claimed
Overall
Recovery
95% - 99%
Comments
High Efficiency ElectroPressure Membrane
(HEEPM)
Advanced Reject
Recovery of Water
(ARROW)
95% - 99%
• Proprietary technology.
• No applications for municipal
water treatment.
Up to 95%
• Proprietary technology.
• No applications for municipal
water treatment.
Optimized Pretreatment
and Separation (OPUS)
90% - 98%
• Proprietary technology.
• High capital and O&M cost.
High Efficiency RO
(HERO)
• Proprietary technology.
• High capital and O&M cost
Pressure Driven Technologies
Technology
Vibratory Shear
Enhanced Process
(VSEP)
Dist Tube (DT)
Filtration
Claimed
Overall
Recovery
Up to 90%
Comments
Up to 93%
• Proprietary technology.
• No applications for municipal water
treatment.
• Proprietary technology.
• Insufficient capacity for municipal
water treatment.
Electric Potential Driven Technologies
Technology
Electrodialysis (ED) and
Electrodialysis Reversal
(EDR)
Electrodialysis Metathesis
(EDM)
Claimed
Overall
Recovery
Up to 95%
Up to 98%
Comments
• Effective for high silica
content.
• Limited effectiveness with
high calcium sulfate saturation
• Effective for high silica
content.
• Effective for operation of
water with high calcium sulfate
saturation.
Advanced Technologies
Technology
Claimed
Overall
Recovery
Up to 90%
Comments
Membrane Distillation
(MD)
Dewvaporation
Up to 90%
Eutectic Freeze
Crystallization
Up to 97%
• Emerging technology.
• No applied pressure.
• Emerging technology.
• No applied pressure.
• Emerging technology.
• No applied pressure.
Forward Osmosis (FO)
Up to 80%
• Emerging technology.
• High energy efficiency.
Technologies Selected for Detailed
Evaluation
 Membrane-based
- Dual Reverse Osmosis with Intermediate Demineralization
 Electric Potential-based
- Electrodialysis Metathesis (EDM)
Electrodialysis Metathesis (EDM)
Conc.
CaCl2,
NaCl
Dilute
Feed
+
A
C
Conc.
Na2SO4,
NaCl
Dilute
NaCl
C
A
-
A
Na+
Na+
ClSO42-
Cl-
SO42-
Ca2+
Feed
Cl-
NaCl
Supply
Feed
Dual RO with Intermediate Treatment
Antiscalant
Overflow
Permeate
LP
Pump
Groundwater
50 mm
Bag
Filter
Hold
Tank
Booster
Pump
HP
Pump
Cartridge
Filter
Primary RO
Secondary RO
Chemicals
Antiscalant
Acid
Sand
Filter
Sludge
Intermediate
Treatment
Concentrate
Distillate
Evaporation
Pond
Brine
Concentrator
Implementation of EDM for Brine
Minimization
Product Water
RO
Feed
Water
Recycled NaCl
NaCl
Reject
EDM
NaOH
Pond, WAIV, or
Thermal
Salt
Salt
Water Quality Overview
Parameter
Units
Brighton
(raw)
Brighton
(concentrate 80%
recovery)
La Junta
(raw)
La Junta
(concentrate
75% recovery)
Calcium (Ca++)
Magnesium (Mg++)
mg/L
mg/L
107
24
533
120
181
60
1065
353
Sodium (Na+)
mg/L
121
605
103
606
Potassium (K+)
Iron (Fe+++)
Total Manganese (Mn)
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
4.3
0.05
0.13
21
0.25
0.65
5
29
Barium (Ba++)
mg/L
0.06
0.3
0.05
0.29
Strontium (Sr++)
mg/L
1.2
6.0
7.6
45
Aluminum (Al)
mg/L
0.002
0.01
Chloride (Cl-)
mg/L
125
818
128
753
Sulfate (SO4--)
Bicarbonate (HCO3-)
Nitrate (NO3-)
Fluoride (F-)
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L as N
mg/L
213
179 (alkalinity)
4.5
1
1065
895
22.4
4.9
546
218
2.3
3.5
3211
1288
13.5
11
Silica (SiO2)
mg/L SiO2
19
96.25
7.5
44
Phosphate (PO4---)
TDS
mg/L PO4
mg/L
0.27
634
1.33
4260
1258
7419
pH
units
7.02
7.71
7.6
8.4
Conductivity
(μS/cm)
1218
6382
Temperature
(F)
62
0.6
11414
59
Modeling Results - RO Based Train
No Intermediate Treatment
With Intermediate Treatment
Degrees of Saturation in Concentrate as %
Degrees of Saturation in Concentrate as %
Brighton
(Concentrate treated
at 53% recovery)
La Junta
(Concentrate treated
at 39% recovery)
Brighton
(Concentrate treated
at 81% recovery)
La Junta
(Concentrate treated
at 67% recovery)
No
Inhibitor
MSI310
No
Inhibitor
MDC151
No
Inhibitor
MSI310
No
MDC151
Inhibitor
CaSO4
133.6
53.5
343.4
98.1
CaSO4
148.0
42.3
349.7
99.9
BaSO4
6362.1
97.9
7572.2
72.1
BaSO4
7783.5
74.1
6705.8
63.9
SrSO4
71.3
2.4
646.8
18.5
SrSO4
211.0
6.0
1353.4
38.7
CaF2
5248.7
0.4
19570.6
1.5
CaF2
19045.6
1.5
44549.2
3.4
SiO2
163.3
85.3
42.5
42.5
SiO2
96.1
96.1
50.4
50.4
CaPO4
172.6
172.6
CaPO4
189.1
101.8
Parameter
CaCO3
94.4
91.0
Parameter
CaCO3
82.3
98.0
Summary of Detailed Evaluation
Brighton
Brine Treatment
Brine Treatment
Process
Recovery
La Junta
RO
53% || 81%
91% || 96%
Brine
Treatment
Recovery
39% || 67%
EDM
95% || N/A
99% || N/A
95% || N/A
Overall
Recovery
Overall
Recovery
85% || 92%
99% || N/A
• Key: Without Intermediate Treatment || With Intermediate Treatment
• Current overall recovery without brine treatment: Brighton 80%, La Junta 75%
Recommendations for Brine Minimization
Technologies
Technology
Dual Reverse Osmosis
Electrodialysis Metathesis
(EDM)
Recommendation
Model performance for Brighton
and La Junta;
Project team supervised pilot test
at Brighton and La Junta.
The Ideal ZLD Solution…
Badwater Salt Flats
Death Valley, CA

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