Chapter 11 The Mole_pptx section 11_1

Report
Chapter 11
The Mole
Section 11.1
Please have a highlighter
and your periodic table out
Standard 3
 3b-Students
know the quantity one mole is
set by defining one mole of carbon 12
atoms to have a mass exactly of 12
grams.
 3c- Students know one mole equals 6.02
x1023 particles (atoms or molecules)
Words used for counting:






Unit Numerical Value
Dozen
12
carton
Pair
2
Ream
500
paper
Gross
144
box
Mole
6.02 x 1023
Example
Eggs in a
Shoes
Sheets of
Pencils in a
Particles
Never Changes
1
dozen is always equal to
12
1
mole is always equal to
6.02 ×1023
Avogardro’s number
•6.02 ×1023 is also called Avogadro’s
number
•It was named after this guy:
Avogadro of Italy
Amedeo
Other names for a particle
The
mole is the SI unit used
for counting the amount of
a substance
1 mole = 6.02 ×1023 particles
Particles can be atoms, ions,
molecules, formula units, etc.
Multiplying a mole
0.5
moles = 3.01 ×10 23
1 mole = 6.02 ×10 23
2 moles = 1.20 ×10 24
3 moles = 1.80 ×10 24
4 moles = 2.41 ×10 24
How big is a mole
602,
000,
000,000,000,000,000,000
particles
602
SEXTILLION!!!!
1 mole=atomic mass of each
element
 The
average atomic mass (on the
periodic table) tells you how much
one mole of an element weighs (it is
also called the molar mass).
 –Ex. one mole of oxygen atoms
weighs 16.00 grams
 –Ex. one mole of potassium atoms
weighs 39.10 grams
How did scientist come up
with this number?
 Carbon-12
has exactly 6 protons and
6 neutrons
 So it has an atomic mass of exactly
12.00 Scientists measured out exactly
12 grams of carbon-12
 The sample had 6.02 ×1023atoms of
carbon
 They set 6.02 ×1023to be one mole
(like 12 is one dozen)
Steps for mole caluculations
 1.
Start with what is given.
 2. (given) x ----------- 3. The units that are given are placed in
the denominator
 4. Your unknown is placed in the
numerator
 5. Multiply the top and divide by the
bottom
Example of time
How
many minutes are in 120
seconds?
Pg 311 examples
1.
Determine the number of
atoms in 3.00 moles(mol) of Zn?
2.
Given 4.00 mole (mol) of
AgNO3 determine the number
of formula units(FMU).
Pg 311 examples continued…
3.
Calculate the number of
molecules in 11.5 mol of H2O.
4a)
5.75 x 1024 atoms Al how
many moles?
On your own in your notes
needs to be stamped for
points
4b)
3.75 x1024 molecules CO2
How many moles?
4c) 3.58 x 1023 Formula units
ZnCl2 How many moles?
4d) 2.50 x1020 atoms Fe. How
many moles?
Molar Mass
and Mole to
gram
calculation
Standard 3.d- Students know how
to determine the molar mass of a
molecule from its chemical
formula and a table of atomic
masses.
17
Molar Mass
The
molar mass of a
compound can be
calculated solving for
the sum of the
products of each
elements’ mass times
18
Examples
EX:
-
-
Find the molar mass of the
following compounds:
P2O5
C6H12O6
Fe2(SO4)3
19
On your own
EX:
Find the molar
mass of the following
compounds:
- N2O3
- KC2H3O2
- Ca3(PO4)2
20
Moles to Grams
EX:
-
-
Perform the following
conversions:
Convert 5.0 moles of Na to
grams
Convert 12.0 moles of He to
grams
Convert 213 grams of NF3 to
moles
21
On your own
PP:
-
-
Perform the following
conversions:
Convert 6.50 moles of O to
grams
Convert 25.0 moles of Fe to
grams
Convert 0.40 moles of Ne to
grams
Converting from particles to
grams and grams to
particles
Standard 3.d
23
Particles to grams
 EX:
-
Perform the following
conversions:
Convert 6.5 x 1024 particles of N to
grams.
Convert 2.8 x 1027 particles of Ca
to grams.
Convert 5.1 x 1022 particles of K to
grams.
24
Grams to particles
EX:
-
Perform the following
conversions:
Convert 300.0 grams of
H2CO3 to particles.
Convert 20.0 grams of CuF2
to particles.
25
PP:
-
Perform the following
conversions:
Convert 250.0 grams of
Na2CO3 to particles.
Convert 10.0 of CaF2 to
particles.

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