Presentation on pituitary gland

Sonam Tshering
Samdrup Rinzin
Anatomy of pituitary gland
 It is also called as hypophysis or master gland because
it controls /influences all other endocrine glands.
 It forms a links between nervous and endocrine
 Location- it is located at the base of the brain near to
the optic nerves. It attach to the hypothalamus.
 Structure- it is pea sized gland which weigh about 0.5
to 1 gram and 1-1.3 cm in diameter.
 Based on the origin, the pituitary is further divided
into two lobes Adenohypophysis/ anterior pituitary and
 Neurohypophysis/ posterior pituitary
 Posterior pituitary-
 It develops from the ventricles and it secretary cells
are called as pituicytes.
It secrete two hormones – 1) Antidiuretic(ADH) and 2)
Oxytocin or pitocin hormones.
 It is the water retaining hormones.
 It stimulus the water reabsorption by distal and
collecting tubules and reduce the water loss in urine.
 Hypo secretion of this hormones leads to diuresis(
abnormally large urine volume) and cause diabetes
 Hyper secretion of this hormones leads to antidiuresis
(small urine volume).
Oxytocine/ pitocin
 It is also called as birth hormones.
 It contracts the uterine muscle during child birth and
ejection of the milk from breast during lactation.
Anterior pituitary
 It is connected with a hypothalamus by a portal system
of blood vessel.
 It secrete hormones which are either polypeptides,
proteins and glycoprotein's.
 It secretory cells are of two types: 1) acidophils and 2)
 The acidophiles secrete somatotropin hormones(STH)
and prolactin.
 The basophile secrete TSH, FSH, LH and ACTH.
 Based on the functional significances these are
grouped into 1) tropic and 2) gonadotropins
Tropic hormones
Somatotropic hormones (STH)/ growth hormonesIt enhances the metabolic processes leading to body
It increases proteins anabolism, fat metabolism and
increase glucose catabolism.
It also enhances for cell division, growth of muscles,
bone s and connective tissue.
Hypo secretion of STH cause following diseasesA) Dwarfism- it is the diseases caused during
childhood stage.
 B) Myxoedema- it is the diseases caused during adult
stage (after growth period).
person with these diseases are weak with retarded
physical growth and mental growth. Hands and legs
are disproportionate. Immature sexuality and retarded
sexual character.
Hyper secretion of STH- it cause the following diseases1) Gigantism- it caused during childhood stage
 It body will be healthy, long and giant sized person.
 2) Acromegaly- it is the diseases in adult stage. This
hormones produces disproportionate gaints. These
have ugly face because of the thickness of facial
bones, long jaws and protruding forehead.
 2- Thyroid stimulating hormones(TSH):
 It stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroxin.
 Its secretion is under controlled by thyrotropin
releasing factors(TRF) produced by hypothalamus.
 Hypo secretion of TSH lead to fall blood level and as a
results it cause the disease known as thyroid atrophy.
 Hyper secretion of TSH lead to produce excess
 3 Adreno cortico tropic hormones (ACTH):
It controls the normal functioning of adrenal glands
and release of mineralo-corticoids and glucocorticoids.
 2 Luteinizing hormones(LH) in female and interstitial
cell in maleLuteinizing hormones stimulates ovulation, formation
of corpus luteum and secretion of progesterone's and
estrogens from corpus luteum.
In male this hormones is called interstitial cell
stimulating hormones. It stimulates the secretion of
3 prolactin or lactogenic hormonesIt controls the secretion of milk after delivery and
during pregnancy promotes breast development.
With LH it maintains corpus luteum late in post
ovulatory or premenstrual phase.
Hypo secretion of ACTH cause atrophy of adrenal
Hyper secretion of ACTH cause excessive growth of
adrenal cortex.
2 Gonadtropins hormones It controls the normal functioning of gonads and
accessory organs. These are:
 1 Follicle stimulating hormones(FSTH) In female it stimulates the growth of graafian follicle
and secretion of estrogens by follicle cells .
 In male it controls the formation of spermatozoa.
 It secretion is under controlled by prolactin hormones
releasing factor(PRF)
 Intermediate lobe It secretes one hormones known as intermedin or
melanocytes stimulating hormones (MSH).
 It increases the pigmentation or darkening of the skins
in many animals such as fish, amphibian but no role
 Rastogy, V. B. (2007).I.S.C Biology for Class Xii. Vol II.
Piyush printer publisher pvt. Ltd: New Delhi.
 Retrieved on 25th of March from
 Retrieved on 24th of March from

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