Radiation Safety & Compliance

Radiation Safety & Compliance
• External Beam
– Electrons (linacs)
– Photons (linacs, Gamma Knife)
– Protons (Summer 2013)
• Brachytherapy
– Sealed Sources
– Radiopharmaceuticals
Radiation Monitoring
• Radiation Badges
• Whole Body badges
• Extremity badges
• Radiation Monitors
– Exchanged quarterly (10/15, 1/15, 4/15, 7/15)
– Must wear monitors while operating or working near
radiation producing machinery or isotopes
– Ideally wear body monitors (badges) at waist level. If
using lead apron, wear on the outside (collar)
– Maintain them in a dry, ambient location.
– Only wear the ones assigned to you by a facility at that
facility. If working elsewhere, that facility must
monitor you. Ensure records are being crosstransferred.
• Radiation Monitors
– If you lose your monitor alert Radiation Oncology
Department’s Chief of Compliance or Compliance
Coordinator ASAP.
– If your monitor is irradiated off-body, try to be
specific about location and duration.
– When not working, maintain monitor in
dependable location (use of monitor boards in
Lounge and across from LL Conf Room).
– Rings will be provided to those handling isotopes.
– Supervisors: Please alert the Chief of Compliance
about upcoming new employees.
Radiation Exposure Reduction
– Occupational Dose
Time – minimize the
Distance – maximize
your distance from the
source of radiation
duration of your exposure
Shielding – use
appropriate shielding
What are precautions for working
with radioactive material?
Caution Signs
Gloves & Lab Coat
Contamination Control
Fume Hoods
No Eating or Drinking
Proper Radwaste Storage
• Worker Classifications
– Gamma Knife and Brachytherapy Nurses &
Technicians will be classified as Radiation
– All Radiation Workers are required to completed
WU Radiation Safety Department Exam.
– All Radiation Workers are required to wear
radiation monitoring badges.
– Rings will be provided to those handling isotopes.
– Brachytherapy Radiation Workers may also be
required to wear radiation monitoring ring badge
dependent on job function.
What are our radiation
worker’s annual dose limits?
Whole Body (DDE)
5 rem
5,000 mrem
Eyes (LDE)
15 rem
15,000 mrem
50 rem
50,000 mrem
Skin (SDE)
50 rem
50,000 mrem
Fetal (gestation period)
0.5 rem
500 mrem
Gen. Public*
0.1 rem
100 mrem
*Public limit for released radiation patient = 500 mrem
Dose Reduction A.L.A.R.A.
• As Low As Reasonably Achievable.
• Limits are the maximums allowable
• Reduce radiation exposure as much as
– Improvement/efficiency of procedures and
– Better Shielding
Radiation Safety
• Linac Radiation Safety Practices
– Anything out of the ordinary (sounds, odors,
temperature) should be reported immediately to
– When working on machine for 1st time, become
familiar with Emergency Off locations.
– Video and Audio must be functional.
– Everyone is responsible for room clearance.
– Door Interlocks and Beam-On indicators must be
functional to treat.
Radiation Safety
• Low energy X-ray Device Safety
– Applies to CT Simulators, AND linac OBI
x-ray sources
• Requires Door interlock, and
• X-ray on Indicator Light
Fetal Radiation Safety
• Prenatal Exposure (Voluntary Disclosure)
Limit is 500 mrem over gestation period.
Further limit of 50 mrem per month.
Risk will increase above these limits.
Most sensitive time period: 8-15 weeks
• Steps if you find that you are pregnant:
– Encouraged to alert Radiation Oncology
Department’s Chief of Compliance, in writing, in
confidence, using declaration form.
– Will be provided additional monthly monitor.
Regulatory Compliance
• State of Missouri regulates radiation
producing equipment such as the Linacs and
• Require registration of each unit,
• Set exposure limits,
• Set training & monitoring requirements,
inspection frequency, etc…
Regulatory Compliance
• U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates the
radioactive material, radiopharmaceuticals and
sealed sources ( i.e. Brachytherapy and Gamma
• Some of the NRC requirements are: written
procedures, QA, training, exposure monitoring,
contamination monitoring, security of RAM and
sealed sources, and the list goes on for miles.
• NRC unannounced inspections
Written Policies & Procedures
• They are located on the OCF website:
http://ocf.wustl.edu/ (click on Clinical
Applications, then Policies and Procedures)
• Be familiar with them
• A written policy or procedure documents how
we will do things.
• They may address regulatory agency
requirements or in-house requirements.
• Regardless of why they were generated they
must be followed.
Written Policies & Procedures
• If you are responsible for generating Policies & Procedures:
– Review periodically or as required by regulatory agency
– Why do we review?
To ensure accuracy and completeness, to make sure
everyone has the same understanding of the policy, process
or situation
To ensure effective communication which will lead to the
desired outcome
– Many problems with procedures once implemented can be
traced to inadequate or no review
– Ensure they are current and address changes when needed
Questions or issues with
• Any questions you may have regarding this
training please contact the Radiation Oncology
Department’s Chief of Compliance through
the Physics Division administrative staff.

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