Understanding the Fade Plan, Prompt Hierarchy and Data Collection Prompt Hierarchy Section created by JANET HULL, Teacher Specialist for Nonpublic Office Presented by Mary Barbera, Special Education Resource for PreKindergarten and Kindergarten PRE ASSESSMENT PLEASE SUBMIT TO YOUR ADMINISTRATOR AACPS-Division of Special Education – Para Educator Training Videos Name: School: Date: 1. A fade plan a. is the same as the IEP and is needed by all students with IEPs. b. is used when the team thinks that the student may not longer need special education support. c. can only be provided by a certified special educator or therapist. d. is a way to document the areas in which a child needs extra support in the classroom and the child’s progress. 2. Which of the following are cues versus prompts? I. “Class, turn to page 22 in your math book and complete problems 1 to 10.” II. The teacher shows the student a card with a picture of the cover of the math book. III. The teacher claps her hands in a rhythm to signal for the class to get quiet. a. I and II c. I and III b. II d. I, II, and III PRE ASSESSMENT PLEASE SUBMIT TO YOUR ADMINISTRATOR 3. If a student cannot write her name independently, what would be the least intrusive prompt to start with? a. Verbal Prompt c. Modeling b. Partial Physical Prompt d. Visual Prompt 4. Running Records and Anecdotal Records are examples of a. Duration Recording. c. Time Sampling. b. Objective Recording. d. Narrative Recording 5. A disadvantage of Time Sampling, Duration Recording and Frequency Counts is that a. They do not necessarily give you information about the antecedents of a behavior. b. They are difficult to collect. c. They rely on having extra materials available. d. It is difficult to summarize the information. Partial Physical Gesture Physical Visual Modeling Verbal Verbal Understanding and Using the Prompt Hierarchy Defining Cues and Prompting A Cue refers to a natural request made by an adult to the student to follow a direction or begin/complete a task. Defining Cues and Prompting A prompt refers to any additional information, assistance and guidance given to the student following a natural teacher cue. Help… The Prompt Hierarchy Most Intrusive Least Intrusive Full Physical Most Intrusive Partial Physical Model Visual to Gestural Least Intrusive Verbal Independent Verbal Prompting Verbal prompts can be Direct or Indirect Direct Verbal – tell the student what he/she is expected to do or say (e.g., “Turn your powerchair right.”) Indirect Verbal – we tell the student that something is expected, but not exactly what (e.g., “Now what?” “What’s next?”, etc.) What do we do next? Tips for using Verbal Prompts Use vocabulary that is familiar to the student Use structurally simple and relatively short sentences when prompting Use “start” directions rather than “stop” directions Adjust your rate of speaking when giving a verbal prompt Use “Start Directions” When giving a direction to a student, tell them what you DO want them to do. Stop Directions Start Directions Stop running Walk in the hall Don’t yell Use an inside voice Stop calling out ??? No hitting ??? More tips for verbal prompting Give “Wait Time” after the prompt (10 sec- 1 minute) Repeat prompt if needed Avoid excessive verbal prompting Gestural Gestural Prompting includes providing a motion to aid the student in understanding what is expected of him/her. Pointing to the item the student will need: Point to the door if you should be leaving, point to the calculators if they need to get a calculator. Visual Visual Prompting includes providing visual aid the student in understanding what is expected of him/her. Providing a visual schedule for students to refer to Mini Schedules for Activity Blocks Language Arts Group Seatwork Work with Teacher Choose a book Media Daily Check List (To Do List) Today I will… _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Task Organizer and Work Cues Write name Color Change According to Activity Cut Glue Put in finished box Get next paper Visual Cues for redirection Expectations for response Expectations for behavior Raise your hand, Hands in Lap Modeling An adult demonstrates a desired response or skill for a student. Demonstration can include verbal prompting. Modeling “thinking aloud” when solving a problem Demonstrating use of a picture schedule Modeling a task/activity CAUTION!! Model to copy: Mary Highlighted name to trace: Partial Physical Giving a student a limited amount of physical guidance through an activity/task. Guiding a students hand during an hands on activity Starting a zipper on a coat Holding one hand as the student manages a set of stairs Full Physical Physically guiding the student through a task or activity Hands on a student’s shoulder while turning their body Using hand-over-hand when writing, cutting, & more Independent The student is able to perform the task on his/her own with no prompts or assistance. Use of normal, everyday cues that a teacher routinely uses with all students Generally established part of classroom routines 58 Fostering Student Independenc Using Prompting Strategies to Increase Student Independence Always allow the target student(s) to respond to the teacher cue before providing a prompt. - If the teacher needs to provide multiple cues to the entire class, continue to wait before providing a prompt. Using Prompting Strategies to Increase Student Independence Avoid providing prompts for skills that a student currently demonstrates Prior to providing a prompt, gain student attention (eye contact as appropriate) Begin with the least intrusive prompt initially Use prompts in conjunction with reinforcement (verbal phrase, point sheets, rewards, etc.) Discontinue prompting for a skill that has been mastered Fading Visual Prompts Write name Today I will… Color ____________________ Cut Glue ____________________ Put in finished box ____________________ Get next paper Fading Prompt Location Visual Prompts: Start: Next to student Later: Within line of vision Gestural or verbal prompts: Start: Seated next to student in classes Later: Roving the class/going to student when needed Last: Present for only a part of class Data Collection What? Information collected to document child’s performance Why? To measure whether the child is making progress How? Define the behavior precisely and find the most efficient way to record the behavior Who? Teacher decides on form, trains TSA Teacher and TSA record data Common Methods of Data Collection Running records Detailed account of events as they occur (pretend you are a video camera) for a limited amount of time. Record what the teacher, student, peers say or do. Do not include WHY you think they did it. Ex: Running record of a child’s actions during center time Pros/Cons Anecdotal records Brief record of an incident that has happened in the recent past using “observable” language – what the teacher, student, peers said or did Ex: incident recorded on a behavior chart Pros/Cons Is it Observable? INCLUDES INTERPRETATION: Johnny was sitting at his desk doing morning work. He got mad when Suzie bumped his chair so he stole her book. ONLY OBSERVABLE BEHAVIOR: Johnny was sitting at his desk going morning work. Susie walked behind him and bumped his chair with her book. Johnny growled and pulled her book from her hand. Numerical Data Collection Methods Duration recording Time Sampling Frequency Counting Duration recording Duration Recording Record the amount of time a behavior lasts Ex: Child sat for (Number of minutes) during morning meeting Pros/Cons Example of Duration Recording Date Time (record minutes) spent in Learning Lab for Calming 9/15 8:45-8:53 = 8 12:32-12:48 = 16 9/16 12:40-1:02 = 22 9/22 8:34-8:45 = 9 10:16-10:30 = 14 9/23 12:30-12:36 = 6 Range of time for calming = 6-22 minutes Average time for calming = 12.5 minutes Time Sampling Time Sampling Record whether the behavior occurs or not during a set time interval. Ex: At each 5 minutes on the clock during group rotations, mark if the child is on-task (+) or off- task(-) Pros/Cons Example of Time Sampling Goal 1: Requisite Learning Obj.3: Complete a color/cut/paste task within teacher determined time limit Criteria: If child is working on project, or asking relevant question of adult or peer mark + Time of Day +/-- 9:03 9:04 9:05 9:06 9:07 9:08 9:09 9:10 + + + -- -- + + + 9:11 9:12 + -- 70% Frequency Count Frequency Count Tally the number of times a clearly defined behavior occurs in a set amount of time Ex: Number of times child leaves the classroom in a day Pros/Cons Example of Frequency Count Chart Goal 2: Social Pragmatics Obj. 1: Initiate greetings with adults and peers Criteria: Greet person with no prompts by saying “Hi,” “Hello,” “Good Morning,” saying person’s name, etc. Peers Mon. | Adults ||| || Tues. Wed || Thurs. | |||| || Fri. Average of times per day = 0.8 Average of times per day = 2.4 Level of Prompt Level of Prompt Mark whether child completes behavior (+/-) AND any prompts that were given Ex: Toileting steps Pros/Cons Example of Level of Prompt Checklist Goal 1: Requisite Learning Obj.1: Complete routines with no more than 2 verbal prompts Criteria: Mark + when step is completed without prompts If prompt is needed, mark using code M= Model VP=Verbal Vis=Visual PP=Physical Prompt Step Mon. Wed. Tues. Take off backpack + + + Take off coat + none + Hang coat in locker none + VPVP+ VP+ Put snack on shelf VPVP+ VPVPPP + VP + + + Put folder in teacher basket Start morning work VPVis+ VP+ VP+ VP+ VP+ VP+ Take materials out of backpack Thurs. Fri. Making Data Collection Worthwhile Use it to help analyze any “stumbling blocks” and then to revise instruction Use it to document progress for progress reports, behavior plans, fade plans Credits Slides on the Prompt Hierarchy were from Janet Hull’s presentation for the Paraeducator Conference August 18 and 19, 2011. Minor adaptations were made. POST ASSESSMENT PLEASE SUBMIT TO YOUR ADMINISTRATOR AACPS-Division of Special Education – Para Educator Training Videos Name: School: Date: 1. A fade plan a. is the same as the IEP and is needed by all students with IEPs. b. is used when the team thinks that the student may not longer need special education support. c. can only be provided by a certified special educator or therapist. d. is a way to document the areas in which a child needs extra support in the classroom and the child’s progress. 2. Which of the following are cues versus prompts? I. “Class, turn to page 22 in your math book and complete problems 1 to 10.” II. The teacher shows the student a card with a picture of the cover of the math book. III. The teacher claps her hands in a rhythm to signal for the class to get quiet. a. I and II c. I and III b. II d. I, II, and III POST ASSESSMENT PLEASE SUBMIT TO YOUR ADMINISTRATOR 3. If a student cannot write her name independently, what would be the least intrusive prompt to start with? a. Verbal Prompt c. Modeling b. Partial Physical Prompt d. Visual Prompt 4. Running Records and Anecdotal Records are examples of a. Duration Recording. c. Time Sampling. b. Objective Recording. d. Narrative Recording. 5. A disadvantage of Time Sampling, Duration Recording and Frequency Counts is that a. they do not necessarily give you information about the antecedents of a behavior. b. they are difficult to collect. c. they rely on having extra materials available. d. it is difficult to summarize the information.