Cue the Video • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kGijXKclgRw Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Michael Matthews, Kim Michaud, Ricshawn Adkins Roane & Luis Sosa The Development of SFBT In this section we will discuss: The Development of SFBT Brief History Important Theoretical Concepts Underlying Assumptions Stages in Treatment Timing Finding Solutions History • originated 1970’s • Mental Research Institute (Palo Alto,CA) • Cognitive/Behavioral • Change of actions/thoughts • Psychodynamic • Efficient / results-oriented • Systems • Reciprocal relationships: client/others • Social systems Theoretical Concepts • Einstein: A problem can’t be solved at level of its creation • Little attention to human development & past pathologies • Focus on positive change in small increments Assumptions • Troubling behavior client’s static frame of reference • Clients are capable of change given increased hope & expectancy • Client’s imagined positive frame clinician’s ideas/suggestions client’s hope for change goals • Concrete goals & changed perceptions/behavior progress • Small changes snowball positively Early Contributors • Steve de Shazer – Miracle question “If you woke up and miraculously your complaint was gone, how would you know?” Clues Task Suggestions • Insoo Kim Berg • O’Hanlon & Weiner-Davis – Stepping stones to goals • behavior changes > understanding Talmon – Starts on the phone: Notice good that’s happening before we have first session • Timing • Therapy relationships relatively brief – 6 to 20 sessions • Scheduling is flexible – Breaks for clinicians to develop clues – Breaks for clients to implement • Treatment lasts until goal is reached / complaints resolved Treatment Stages • Seven Treatment Stages which include: – ID solvable complaint unsuccessful interactions/ mishandling things – Establishing specific, observable, measurable, concrete goals which will change client’s VIEWING, DOING, OR ACCESSING RESOURCES client’s positive imaginings or exceptions – Strategic tasks evaluation of tasks – Termination by client : goal accomplished Progress Finding Solutions • View clients as experts with strengths/resources they need to change • Focus on change in progress/expand on positive exceptions • Provide rationale for tasks • Encourage new behaviors, not just cessation of old • Make solutions practical and specific Treatment Using SFBT In this section we will discuss: •SFBT Therapeutic Goals •The Therapeutic Alliance •Therapeutic Techniques Jamie, Ricshawn, Ellington & Hathaway Minka-en, Tokyo, Japan 2010 Therapeutic Goals • Establish climate conducive to change • Shift from problem-talk to solution-talk • Identify “exceptions” • Tap inner resources The Therapeutic Alliance • Positive orientation • Collaborative and consultative relationship • Therapist-as-expert replaced by client-as-expert • Therapist as facilitator of change SFBT Therapeutic Techniques Solution Talk Make Suggestions Termination • • • • • • Clues Complaint Pattern Intervention Focus on strengths Formula First Session Task Homework Miracle Question • • • • • • Pretherapy Change Problem Externalization Scaling Questions Summary Feedback/Compliments Termination Videotalk Section Review In this Section we discussed: •SFBT Therapeutic Goals •The Therapeutic Alliance •Therapeutic Techniques Application & Current Use of Solution Focused Theory • • • • Section Overview: Application to Diagnostic Groups Application to Multicultural Groups Application to Other Groups Current Use of Solution Focused Brief Therapy What Type of Client is Best for SFBT? • Is motivated to face their difficulties and change • Has a history of good relationships • Can be flexible and creative • Has succeeded in finding solutions to past problems • Has a strong support group The Scope of SFBT • Has expanded and is meant to help anyone who is in the midst of a crisis Focus is on helping clients realize that they are more than their symptoms and/or experiences • The use of trances, stories, and solution talk are used to validate what others invalidate within themselves. (This invites the client to consider new opportunities.) • Promote a client’s boundaries/the ability to maintain those boundaries • Rituals provide consistency & facilitate transitions & can also promote connection with other people, memories and one’s history and culture. Application to Diagnostic Groups Well suited to treatment of mood and anxiety disorders Concepts and Strategies associated with SFBT • Attention to motivation • Emphasis on small successes • Efforts to find exceptions It is likely that a counselor will need to apply more than just SFBT Application to Multicultural Groups SFBT respects and honors the unique cultural backgrounds – each client is seen as the expert on his or her own life SFBT Focuses on: Health Resources Strengths Client Dignity Collaboration Empowerment Self- Determination • Flexible -- What’s most important to each client can be emphasized on a case by case basis • Does not place great weight on the importance of cultural factors • The key is client motivation Application to Other Groups Useful for clients of all ages but may need modification for children Child Modification: The use of Integrated expressive play techniques Current Use of Solution Focused Brief Therapy Growing in popularity because of its efficiency and effectiveness Well received because it advocates: Goal setting Measurement of progress Empowerment of clients Collaborative therapeutic alliance • Use of intervention and homework tasks makes this easy to integrate with other theories—particularly those that focus on behavior change. (Cognitive behavioral, REBT, Adlerian and reality therapy) Cue the Video Evaluation of SFBT In this section we will discuss SFBT: •Limitations •Strengths •Contributions Limitations • Too much focus on the presenting problem • Client history is neglected • Not usually appropriate as the primary or only treatment plan • Lack of focus on insight • Can be costly for the client Strengths • • • • • • Effective and efficient Well received by clients Deals with immediate problems Challenges clients to think Encouraging and empowering Can be combined with other counseling approaches Contributions • Optimistic orientation • Provides clinicians with powerful new interventions (The miracle question, emphasis on exceptions and possibilities, and its emphasis on small behavioral changes) Section Review In this Section we discussed: •Limitations •Strengths •Contributions References Corey, M. S., and Corey, G. (2011, 2007). Becoming a helper (6th ed., pp. 174-176). Belmont, California: Brooks/Cole. Corey, G. (2005). Postmodern Approaches. In L. Gebo, J. Martinez, M. Flemming, & S. Gesicki (Eds.), Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy (7th ed., pp. 382-419). Belmont, California: Brooks/Cole. Gladding, S. T. (2009). Counseling: A Comprehensive Profession (6th ed., pp. 242-244). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson. Ivey, A. E., D’Andrea, M., Ivey, M. B., & Simek-Morgan, L. (2007). Theories of Counseling and psychotherapy: A Multicultural perspective (6th ed., pp. 65-71 & 101-108). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Seligman, L. (2010). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: Systems, strategies and skills (3rd ed., pp. 366-369). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill, Prentice-Hall, Inc.