3 Cooperative Learning

* is a cluster of specific instructional strategies
that involve students working collaboratively
to reach common goals;
* is characterized by a set of basic elements:
* positive interdependence
* individual accountability
* equal opportunity for success
* social/collaborative skills
* group processing
* face-to-face promotive interaction;
* puts students in both learning and teaching
* aims to achieve two major goals
* attain content-related instructional
objectives (Task Work);
* develop students social and collaborative
skills (Team Work);
* is NOT equivalent to “group work”.
* Define, demonstrate, model, and explain social skills.
* Model cooperative learning skills yourself
* Emphasize expected group behaviors daily
* Discuss negative effects of put-downs on classroom
contribution. Enforce the rule of “No put- downs
allowed” with the compliment rule that “if a student
gives a put-down, she immediately owes the other
person two compliments”.
* Have students regularly tell their teammates
* “I am glad you are here”, “I am glad you
were here”, “thanks for helping”.
* Have students give each other positive
feedback each time they work as a group
* “It helped when you", “Three ways we did
well were . . .”
* “One way each member contributed was . .
* When group members have problems, help
them perceive them as interesting problem
solving situations. Work them through the
* define the problem in specific terms,
* brainstorm possible solutions,
* try each one until the problem is solved.
Definition to Examples
Examples to Definition
• Present abstraction (Define the • Present examples and nonconcept)
• Clarify abstraction. (Elicit
paraphrased definition,
present or elicit definition of
terms, and emphasize critical
features of concept.
• Identify concept's critical
features (Direct students to
identify features common to
all examples or identify
features shared by examples
and verbalize differences
observed between examples
and non-examples. List and
organize critical features on
board or transparency. Cue
students if necessary by asking
questions that direct attention
to any overlooked critical
Definition to Examples
Examples to Definition
• Present examples and nonexamples (provide examples that
depict concept's critical features
and explicitly direct attention to
how common features are evident
in those illustrations. Provide nonexamples that lack one or more of
the concept's critical features and
explain how they differ from
examples. Present a strategy for
distinguishing between examples
and non-examples
• Elicit abstraction (request
definition of concept and clarify
• Reinforce link to prior learning
• Relate concept to prior knowledge
(link to superordinate concept and
contrast with coordinate concepts)

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