Task Analysis LAURA BULLARD, SDA TEACHER, WORK READINESS, LANEY HIGH SCHOOL MED SPECIAL EDUCATION [email protected] What is Task Analysis? Breaking a skill into smaller, more manageable steps in order to teach the skill. As steps are mastered, the worker becomes increasingly more independent in his/her ability to perform the larger skill. What Tasks are Task Analysis Appropriate? Too simple (discrete skill). Too complex, multiple outcomes. YES, use TASK ANALYSIS when the skill has multiple, chained, discrete steps. Let’s Play Scattergor-ials! Fill in Categories: “Too Simple” “Too Complex” “Just Right” Let’s Play Scattergor-ials! Fill in Categories: “Production/Processing” “Business/Marketing” “Customer Service” Why Use Task Analysis? Research-based. Effective means of planning how to teach skills that require several steps to be performed in a certain order (chained behaviors). Effective for taking a large group of skills used in a vocational task (like cleaning a cafeteria) and breaking them down into phases. Phases are taught as smaller sections to build on mastering the larger task. Example: Phase 1: Prepare cleaning materials Phase 2: Clean tables Phase 3: Clean floors Phase 4: Take out trash Phase 5: Put away materials What Setting and With Whom? Task analysis can be used in school, at home, in the community, on the job. Generalization of skills is most likely to occur when the skill is taught in multiple settings with a variety of trainers and materials. Task analysis is effective for all learners. -Recipes, hair dye, IKEA instructions What is Task Analysis? N.C. Department of Health and Human Services Division of Public Health • Environmental Health Section North Carolina Food Code Manual http://ehs.ncpublichealth.com/faf/docs/foodprot/NCFoodCodeManual-2009-FINAL.pdf What is Task Analysis? Implementing Task Analysis Step 1. Identify the Target Skill Determine what skill the worker needs to be able to complete. Example: Cleaning toilets, filling fruit cups, delivering interoffice mail, shredding confidential papers, organizing sales racks/shelves, etc. Implementing Task Analysis Step 2. Identify Prerequisite Skills of the Worker and Materials Needed Collect baseline data on the skill. Skills already mastered might not be included in the task analysis for teaching purposes. Determine how much detail needs to be included. Determine what materials are needed. Train to multiple exemplars. Example: Shredding-Does the worker already know how to turn the shredder on, but needs help removing staples and feeding sheets? You need a staple remover, a trash can, a shredder, bags to clean the shredder. Implementing Task Analysis Step 3. Break the Skill Down Complete the skill sequence yourself and record the steps. Or, observe someone else complete the skill. Confirm that each part of the task analysis is an individual skill. Implementing Task Analysis Step 3. Break the Skill Down Example: Open shredder door and check for bag Collect papers for shredding Remove staples from stack of paper (put in trash) Remove paperclips from stack of paper (put in basket) Feed one sheet of paper at a time Shred until basket is empty Open shredder door and check if bag is full Remove if full Replace shredder bag I “forgot” a step…what goes here? Implementing Task Analysis Step 4. Confirm the Task is Analyzed Completely Have someone else follow the steps. Could be staff, student, spouse…just check that you didn’t miss any steps. Implementing Task Analysis Step 5. Determine How the Skill Will be Taught Backward Chain-Assist worker with every step up to the last step where training occurs. As master last step, move up…backwards, until the worker is completing the entire task without prompts! THE TASK IS COMPLETED IN ORDER, BUT TRAINING IS BACKWARDS. Forward Chain-Begin with first step first. As master first step, train the next until the worker is completing the entire task without prompts. Total Task-Training on all steps from start to finish with prompting on each steps as needed until the worker is completing the entire task with independence. Example: Shredding Job-??? Which one? Implementing Task Analysis Step 5. Determine How the Skill Will be Taught Steps written out Pictures or symbols Video modeling (watch online or teacher or job coach made) Combination Implementing Task Analysis Step 6. Implementation and Progress Monitoring Who, What, When, Where, How Long What’s mastery? How are appropriate approximations toward the target skill being reinforced? How is skill being maintained once taught? DATA collection… (Prompt sequences & levels of independence) Implementing Task Analysis More on Data Collection: Cue/No Cue (yes/no or +/-) Least Restrictive/Most Restrictive (Independent, Gesture, Verbal Cue, Model, Partial Physical Assist, Full Manipulation) Wake County Data Collection Tools Your Turn to Create a Task Analysis Develop a task analysis for rolling silverware Teach your partner to ROLL! Reflections on your ROLL… Citations and References Presentation Adapted from: Szidon, K., & Franzone, E. (2010). Task Analysis: Online Training Module. (Madison, WI: National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin). In Ohio Center for Autism and Low Incidence (OCALI), Autism Internet Modules, www.autisminternetmodules.org. Columbus, OH: OCALI. Visual Model: N.C. Department of Health and Human Services Division of Public Health • Environmental Health Section North Carolina Food Code Manual http://ehs.ncpublichealth.com/faf/docs/foodprot/NC-FoodCodeManual-2009-FINAL.pdf Sample Graphs: https://www.georgiastandards.org/resources/SCDData%20Sheets/Task_Analysis_10_Step _Data_Sheet.doc https://www.georgiastandards.org/resources/SCDData%20Sheets/Task_Analysis_20_Step _Data_Sheet.doc Thank you for your participation! Remember…competent workers had competent mentors. Frame it positive…start with “YES” and “I LIKE”. A happy worker will work for FREE (sometimes)! Roll your sleeves up! Put your sleeves back down! Clear expectations=Ability to meet expectations. It didn’t happen…unless you wrote it down.