Task Analysis 8-19-14 Laura Bullard

Task Analysis
[email protected]
What is Task Analysis?
 Breaking
a skill into smaller, more
manageable steps in order to teach the
 As
steps are mastered, the worker
becomes increasingly more independent
in his/her ability to perform the larger skill.
What Tasks are Task Analysis
Too simple (discrete skill).
Too complex, multiple outcomes.
YES, use TASK ANALYSIS when the
skill has multiple, chained, discrete
Let’s Play Scattergor-ials!
Fill in Categories:
“Too Complex”
“Just Right”
Let’s Play Scattergor-ials!
Fill in Categories:
Why Use Task Analysis?
Effective means of planning how to teach skills that require several
steps to be performed in a certain order (chained behaviors).
Effective for taking a large group of skills used in a vocational task
(like cleaning a cafeteria) and breaking them down into phases.
Phases are taught as smaller sections to build on mastering the
larger task.
Phase 1: Prepare cleaning materials
Phase 2: Clean tables
Phase 3: Clean floors
Phase 4: Take out trash
Phase 5: Put away materials
What Setting and With Whom?
 Task
analysis can be used in school, at
home, in the community, on the job.
 Generalization of skills is most likely to
occur when the skill is taught in multiple
settings with a variety of trainers and
 Task analysis is effective for all learners.
-Recipes, hair dye, IKEA instructions 
What is Task Analysis?
N.C. Department of Health and Human
Services Division of Public Health •
Environmental Health Section
North Carolina Food Code Manual
What is Task Analysis?
Implementing Task Analysis
Step 1. Identify the Target Skill
Determine what skill the worker needs to be able
to complete.
Example: Cleaning toilets, filling fruit cups,
delivering interoffice mail, shredding confidential
papers, organizing sales racks/shelves, etc.
Implementing Task Analysis
Step 2. Identify Prerequisite Skills of the Worker and
Materials Needed
Collect baseline data on the skill. Skills already
mastered might not be included in the task analysis
for teaching purposes.
Determine how much detail needs to be included.
Determine what materials are needed. Train to
multiple exemplars.
Example: Shredding-Does the worker already know how
to turn the shredder on, but needs help removing staples
and feeding sheets? You need a staple remover, a trash
can, a shredder, bags to clean the shredder.
Implementing Task Analysis
Step 3. Break the Skill Down
Complete the skill sequence yourself and record
the steps.
Or, observe someone else complete the skill.
Confirm that each part of the task analysis is an
individual skill.
Implementing Task Analysis
Step 3. Break the Skill Down
Open shredder door and check for bag
 Collect papers for shredding
 Remove staples from stack of paper (put in trash)
 Remove paperclips from stack of paper (put in basket)
 Feed one sheet of paper at a time
 Shred until basket is empty
 Open shredder door and check if bag is full
 Remove if full
 Replace shredder bag
 I “forgot” a step…what goes here?
Implementing Task Analysis
Step 4. Confirm the Task is Analyzed Completely
Have someone else follow the steps.
Could be staff, student, spouse…just check that
you didn’t miss any steps.
Implementing Task Analysis
Step 5. Determine How the Skill Will be Taught
Backward Chain-Assist worker with every step up to the last step
where training occurs. As master last step, move
up…backwards, until the worker is completing the entire task
Forward Chain-Begin with first step first. As master first step, train
the next until the worker is completing the entire task without
Total Task-Training on all steps from start to finish with prompting
on each steps as needed until the worker is completing the
entire task with independence.
Example: Shredding Job-??? Which one?
Implementing Task Analysis
Step 5. Determine How the Skill Will be Taught
Steps written out
Pictures or symbols
Video modeling (watch online or teacher or job
coach made)
Implementing Task Analysis
Step 6. Implementation and Progress Monitoring
Who, What, When, Where, How Long
What’s mastery?
How are appropriate approximations toward the
target skill being reinforced?
How is skill being maintained once taught?
collection… (Prompt sequences &
levels of independence)
Implementing Task Analysis
More on Data Collection:
 Cue/No
Cue (yes/no or +/-)
 Least
Restrictive/Most Restrictive
(Independent, Gesture, Verbal Cue,
Model, Partial Physical Assist, Full
 Wake
County Data Collection Tools
Your Turn to Create a Task Analysis
a task analysis for
rolling silverware
Teach your partner to ROLL!
Reflections on your ROLL…
Citations and References
Presentation Adapted from:
Szidon, K., & Franzone, E. (2010). Task Analysis: Online Training Module. (Madison, WI:
National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders, Waisman
Center, University of Wisconsin). In Ohio Center for Autism and Low Incidence (OCALI),
Autism Internet Modules, www.autisminternetmodules.org. Columbus, OH: OCALI.
Visual Model:
N.C. Department of Health and Human Services Division of Public Health • Environmental
Health Section North Carolina Food Code Manual
Sample Graphs:
Thank you for your participation!
 Remember…competent
workers had competent
 Frame it positive…start with “YES” and “I LIKE”.
 A happy worker will work for FREE (sometimes)!
 Roll your sleeves up!
 Put your sleeves back down!
 Clear expectations=Ability to meet expectations.
 It didn’t happen…unless you wrote it down.

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