### Task Analysis 8-19-14 Laura Bullard

```Task Analysis
LAURA BULLARD, SDA TEACHER, WORK READINESS, LANEY HIGH SCHOOL
MED SPECIAL EDUCATION
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 Breaking
a skill into smaller, more
manageable steps in order to teach the
skill.
 As
steps are mastered, the worker
becomes increasingly more independent
in his/her ability to perform the larger skill.
Appropriate?
Too simple (discrete skill).
Too complex, multiple outcomes.
YES, use TASK ANALYSIS when the
skill has multiple, chained, discrete
steps.
Let’s Play Scattergor-ials!
Fill in Categories:
“Too
Simple”
“Too Complex”
“Just Right”
Let’s Play Scattergor-ials!
Fill in Categories:
“Production/Processing”
“Customer
Service”

Research-based.

Effective means of planning how to teach skills that require several
steps to be performed in a certain order (chained behaviors).

Effective for taking a large group of skills used in a vocational task
(like cleaning a cafeteria) and breaking them down into phases.
Phases are taught as smaller sections to build on mastering the
Example:
Phase 1: Prepare cleaning materials
Phase 2: Clean tables
Phase 3: Clean floors
Phase 4: Take out trash
Phase 5: Put away materials
What Setting and With Whom?
analysis can be used in school, at
home, in the community, on the job.
 Generalization of skills is most likely to
occur when the skill is taught in multiple
settings with a variety of trainers and
materials.
 Task analysis is effective for all learners.
-Recipes, hair dye, IKEA instructions 
N.C. Department of Health and Human
Services Division of Public Health •
Environmental Health Section
North Carolina Food Code Manual

http://ehs.ncpublichealth.com/faf/docs/foodprot/NCFoodCodeManual-2009-FINAL.pdf
Step 1. Identify the Target Skill

Determine what skill the worker needs to be able
to complete.

Example: Cleaning toilets, filling fruit cups,
delivering interoffice mail, shredding confidential
papers, organizing sales racks/shelves, etc.
Step 2. Identify Prerequisite Skills of the Worker and
Materials Needed




Collect baseline data on the skill. Skills already
mastered might not be included in the task analysis
for teaching purposes.
Determine how much detail needs to be included.
Determine what materials are needed. Train to
multiple exemplars.
Example: Shredding-Does the worker already know how
to turn the shredder on, but needs help removing staples
and feeding sheets? You need a staple remover, a trash
can, a shredder, bags to clean the shredder.
Step 3. Break the Skill Down

Complete the skill sequence yourself and record
the steps.

Or, observe someone else complete the skill.

Confirm that each part of the task analysis is an
individual skill.
Step 3. Break the Skill Down
Example:
Open shredder door and check for bag
 Collect papers for shredding
 Remove staples from stack of paper (put in trash)
 Remove paperclips from stack of paper (put in basket)
 Feed one sheet of paper at a time
 Shred until basket is empty
 Open shredder door and check if bag is full
 Remove if full
 Replace shredder bag
 I “forgot” a step…what goes here?

Step 4. Confirm the Task is Analyzed Completely

Have someone else follow the steps.

Could be staff, student, spouse…just check that
you didn’t miss any steps.
Step 5. Determine How the Skill Will be Taught

Backward Chain-Assist worker with every step up to the last step
where training occurs. As master last step, move
up…backwards, until the worker is completing the entire task
without prompts! THE TASK IS COMPLETED IN ORDER, BUT
TRAINING IS BACKWARDS.

Forward Chain-Begin with first step first. As master first step, train
the next until the worker is completing the entire task without
prompts.

Total Task-Training on all steps from start to finish with prompting
on each steps as needed until the worker is completing the
Example: Shredding Job-??? Which one?
Step 5. Determine How the Skill Will be Taught

Steps written out

Pictures or symbols

Video modeling (watch online or teacher or job

Combination
Step 6. Implementation and Progress Monitoring




Who, What, When, Where, How Long
What’s mastery?
How are appropriate approximations toward the
target skill being reinforced?
How is skill being maintained once taught?
DATA
collection… (Prompt sequences &
levels of independence)
More on Data Collection:
 Cue/No
Cue (yes/no or +/-)
 Least
Restrictive/Most Restrictive
(Independent, Gesture, Verbal Cue,
Model, Partial Physical Assist, Full
Manipulation)
 Wake
County Data Collection Tools
Develop
rolling silverware
Citations and References
Szidon, K., & Franzone, E. (2010). Task Analysis: Online Training Module. (Madison, WI:
National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders, Waisman
Center, University of Wisconsin). In Ohio Center for Autism and Low Incidence (OCALI),
Autism Internet Modules, www.autisminternetmodules.org. Columbus, OH: OCALI.
Visual Model:
N.C. Department of Health and Human Services Division of Public Health • Environmental
Health Section North Carolina Food Code Manual
http://ehs.ncpublichealth.com/faf/docs/foodprot/NC-FoodCodeManual-2009-FINAL.pdf
Sample Graphs:
_Data_Sheet.doc
_Data_Sheet.doc