-Binocular depth cues (Requiring the use of
both eyes)
=>Retinal Disparity.
-Monocular depth cues (Requiring the use
of one eye only)
=>Pictorial cues: Linear perspective,
interposition, texture gradient, relative
size, height in the visual field
 C: Convergence (Binocular)
 A: Accommodation (Monocular)
 R: Retinal Disparity (Binocular)
 T: Texture Gradient (Monocular-Pictorial Cue)
 H: Height in the visual field (Monocular-PC)
 R: Relative Size (Monocular - PC)
 I: Interposition (Monocular-PC)
 L: Linear Perspective (Monocular-PC)
Brain detects, then interprets tension
from eye muscles when the two eyes turn
inwards (towards the nose) to focus on
near objects
disparity is a binocular depth
cue which comes about due to the fact
that our eyes are set apart by 6-7
Consequently, each eye receives a
slightly different retinal image due to
each eyes slightly different angle of
view. A combination of both eyes
retinal image gives us information
where we can judge distance
 Retinal
Accommodation is a depth cue involving
The lens bulges to focus on nearby objects and
flattens to focus on objects which are far away
changes in the shape of the lens of the eye.
By bulging the lens becomes more convex and
therefore refracts light more severely in order
to reduce a large (close) image down to a size
that can still be accommodated by the retina.
The lens flattens for more distant objects
because it does not need to refract the light so
much in order to fit the image onto the retina
To remember the shape of the
lens for different distances,
Imagine its cross-section.
The shorter diameter is for
shorter distances, whereas the
longer, flatter lens is for long
 These
monocular cues are so named
because of their extensive application
by artists in providing a threedimensional perception of something
that exists on a two-dimensional
 Linear Perspective, Texture Gradient,
Height in the Visual Field, Relative
Size, Interposition
Linear perspective is
one of the most
basic skills of
artistry to create
apparent depth.
Parallel lines are
made to converge as
they extend up the
page to an imaginary
vanishing point
(where they
theoretically come
together) at the
change from
coarse to fine
texture of
surfaces with
provides depth
Partial obscuring
(blocking) of one object
by a closer object
The larger of two objects (i.e. the one
that casts the larger retinal image) tends
to be perceived as near (in the absence of
other cues)
Objects below the
horizon and moving
higher in the visual
field are perceived
as being further
away; objects
above the horizon
and moving lower in
the visual fields
are perceived as
being further

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