Classroom_Module_Discouraging_Inappropriate_Behavior_092412

Report
MO SW-PBS Classroom Module
• This module is designed to provide the slides and
materials needed to teach staff, students and families
about a SW-PBS topic.
• Notes have been written to assist with the presentation.
• More information is available in the Classroom chapter
of the 2012-13 MO SW-PBS Team Workbook about the
topic.
• Slides 2 – 14 are an introduction and may be deleted if
you have presented in previous modules.
• Call your Regional Consultant if you have questions
• Good luck!
• Delete this slide before beginning your session.
Note to Presenter
This Module on Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior may be presented
as a whole (approximately 2 hours) OR Divided into 2 sessions
1. Instructional Approaches for
Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior
Outcomes:
• Explain to others the role of
teaching in response to
student social errors.
2. Responding to Minor Misbehavior
Outcomes:
• Use simple techniques for
responding to “minor”
inappropriate behavior and
demonstrate error
correction strategies.
• Use additional
consequences to respond to
“minor” inappropriate
behavior.
Delete this slide before beginning your session.
Prerequisites for This Classroom
Module
• This module addresses only “minor” inappropriate behavior
which staff are expected to address; responses to “major”
inappropriate behavior are NOT addressed in this module.
• This module is written with the assumption these points
have been previously addressed and are therefore not
covered in this module:
– Your staff have discussed and agreed on the difference between
minor (staff managed) and major (office managed) behaviors.
– Your Office Discipline Referral (ODR) form has been reviewed to
address all the necessary Essential Contextual Factors (page 184
MO SW-PBS Team Workbook).
– Staff are using your school’s process to accurately record
behavioral incidents using your ODR form.
– Delete this slide before beginning your session.
Handouts
• These handouts are needed to complete this
module:
– Staff Managed Behavior
– Practice Selecting Techniques to Effectively
Address Inappropriate Behavior
– Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior Fact Sheet
Effective Classroom Practices
Outcomes
At the end of the session, you will be able to…
• Explain to others the power of positive and proactive
strategies in establishing an effective classroom learning
environment.
• Understand and be able to demonstrate methods to
encourage expected behavior.
MO SW-PBS
“When teachers know and use positive and
preventative management strategies, many of
the commonly reported minor classroom
behaviors can be avoided.”
Scheuermann & Hall
“Effective classroom management is a key
component of effective instruction, regardless of
grade level, subject, pedagogy or curriculum.”
Sprick, et. al
MO SW-PBS
Typical School Day
17%
33%
20%
30%
Direct Instruction
Seatwork
Transitions
Discipline & Other
Non-Instructional
Activities
Cotton, 1995; Walberg, 1988
MO SW-PBS
324
Academic Learning Time
There is no doubt that academic learning
time–the amount of time that students are
actively, successfully, and productively
engaged in learning–is a strong
determinant of achievement.
MO SW-PBS
Academic Learning Time
Instructional Time–the amount of the allocated
time that actually results in teaching.
Engaged Time–the amount of instructional time
students are actively engaged in learning.
MO SW-PBS
Academic Learning Time
Instructional Time–diminished by unclear
procedures, disruptive student behavior,
disciplinary responses, lengthy transitions, etc.
– Classroom Expectations
– Classroom Procedures & Routines
– Encouraging Expected Behavior
– Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior
MO SW-PBS
Academic Learning Time
• Engaged Time–diminished by inactive
supervision, limited opportunities for students
to respond, poor task selection, etc.
– Active Supervision
– Opportunities to Respond
– Activity Sequencing & Choice
– Task Difficulty
MO SW-PBS
Three Levels of Implementation
A Continuum of Support for All
Academic Systems
Behavioral Systems
Tier Three
Tier Three
• Individual Students
• Assessment-based
• High Intensity
• Individual Students
• Assessment-based
• Intense, durable procedures
Tier Two
• Some students (at-risk)
• High efficiency
• Rapid response
Tier Two
• Some students (at-risk)
• High efficiency
• Rapid response
Tier One
Tier One
• All students
• Preventive, proactive
• All settings, all students
• Preventive, proactive
MO SW-PBS
15
Effective Classroom Practices
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Classroom Expectations
Classroom Procedures & Routines
Encouraging Expected Behavior
Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior
Active Supervision
Opportunities to Respond
Activity Sequencing & Choice
Task Difficulty
MO SW-PBS
324
Discussion: Academic Learning Time
Discuss with a partner:
• What do we currently do to ensure uninterrupted
learning time?
• What do we currently do to ensure engaged time
(e.g., practices to ensure that students are on task,
responding frequently, and producing quality work
matched to their ability)?
MO SW-PBS
325
Effective classroom managers are known, not by
what they do when misbehavior occurs, but by
what they do to set their classroom up for
academic success and to prevent problems from
occurring.
MO SW-PBS
324
References
• Cotton, K. (1995) Effective schools research summary:
1995 update. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional
Educational Laboratory.
• Scheuermann, B. K. and Hall, J. A. (2008). Positive
behavioral supports for the classroom. Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
• Sprick, R., Knight, J., Reinke, W. & McKale, T. (2006).
Coaching classroom management: Strategies and tools
for administrators and coaches. Eugene, OR: Pacific
Northwest Publishing.
• Walberg, H. (1988). Synthesis of research on time and
learning. Educational Leadership 45(6), 76-85.
Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior
in the Classroom
MO SW-PBS
Effective Classroom Practices
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Classroom Expectations
Classroom Procedures & Routines
Encouraging Expected Behavior
Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior
Active Supervision
Opportunities to Respond
Activity Sequencing & Choice
Task Difficulty
Outcomes
At the end of the session, you will be able to…
• Explain to others the role of teaching in response to
student social errors.
• Use simple techniques for responding to “minor”
inappropriate behavior and demonstrate error correction
strategies.
• Use additional consequences to respond to “minor”
inappropriate behavior.
MO SW-PBS
175
Instructional Approaches for
Discouraging Inappropriate Behavior
176
“Punishing students doesn’t teach them the
right way to act.”
George Sugai
MO SW-PBS
Reasons for Inappropriate Behavior:
1. Skill Deficit–absent skill levels or
insufficient opportunity to learn and
practice the expected behavior
2. Performance Deficit– a lack of motivation
to perform the preferred behavior
Either problem–absent skill or lack of
motivation–requires more teaching and
practice to resolve.
MO SW-PBS
176
Punishment Is Not the Solution
Punishing problem behavior without a positive, proactive,
and instructional approach results in increased:
• Aggression
• Vandalism
• Truancy
• Dropouts
Mayer & Sulzer-Azaroff, 1990; Skiba, Peterson, & Williams, 1997
MO SW-PBS
Discipline is Teaching
dis•ci•pline n. 1. teaching to act in accordance with
rules; 2. activity, exercise, instruction, or a regimen
that develops or improves a skill; training; 3.
punishment inflicted by way of correction and training.
Random House Unabridged Dictionary
dis•ci•pline (fr. Latin disciplina; teaching, learning)
Instruction that corrects, molds or perfects
character and develops self-control.
Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary
MO SW-PBS
Prevention is Key
When inappropriate behaviors occur, assess
setting or antecedent events and ask:
• Do we have clear expectations?
• Have they been thoroughly taught?
• Are we consistently using strategies to
encourage desired behaviors?
The best defense is always a great offense.
MO SW-PBS
Upholding Expectations
“Teachers should focus on increasing positive behavior
and interactions by consistently enforcing
expectations.”
Shores, Gunter & Jack, 1993
“When teachers are inconsistent in their enforcement
of expectations, students become uncertain of what
those expectations are and that the expectations
apply to them.”
Evertson, Emmer & Worsham, 2003
MO SW-PBS
177
“Clearly stating expectations and consistently enforcing
them lends credibility to a teacher’s authority.”
Good & Brophy, 2000
Teachers who respond consistently feel positive about
their teaching and help students improve their
performance.
Freiberg, Stein & Huan, 1995
MO SW-PBS
“Unfortunately, most of the practical techniques
used by teachers to respond to acting-out children
are only of limited effectiveness and some, such as
reprimands, arguing, and escalated hostile
interactions, can actually strengthen the behaviors
they are intended to suppress or terminate.”
Hill Walker, 1995
The Acting-Out Child: Coping With Classroom Disruption
MO SW-PBS
Responding to Errors
Academic
•
•
•
•
Identify error
Re-teach correct response
Model/demonstrate
Provide guided practice &
feedback
• Provide independent
practice
• Monitor
• Provide feedback
MO SW-PBS
Social Behavioral
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Identify the error
Re-teach expected behavior
Model/demonstrate
Practice
Monitor
Provide encouragement
Correct and re-teach as
needed
The Power of Correcting Social Errors
• Upholds the importance of expectations.
• Restores order to the learning
environment.
• Interrupts the inappropriate behavior,
preventing practice of that behavior.
• Capitalizes on the teachable moment.
• Gives the child a chance to learn to be
successful.
MO SW-PBS
177
The Power of Correcting Social Errors
Continued
• Increases probability of future correct
behavior.
• Decreases future time out of
learning/instruction.
• Demonstrates care and concern by the
adult.
• Builds relationships with students.
• Maintains a positive learning climate.
MO SW-PBS
177
Discussion: Instructional Approaches
With a partner, reflect on what you have heard:
• How does this teaching approach to student
inappropriate behavior align with your present
thinking?
• Do you view inappropriate behavior as a teaching
opportunity?
MO SW-PBS
Strategies to Address “Minor”
Inappropriate Behavior
188
Staff-Managed Behavior
All staff are expected to manage any inappropriate
behavior that runs counter to your expectations
and is not listed as office-managed. This includes
any or all behavior that runs counter to:
•
•
•
•
School-wide expectations
Non-classroom expectations or procedures
Classroom expectations or procedures
Any other socials skills you have adopted
MO SW-PBS
“The single most commonly used but least effective
method for addressing undesirable behavior is to
verbally scold and berate a student.”
Alberto & Troutman, 2012
High rates of teacher attention to inappropriate
behavior is prevalent in our schools. This attention for
misbehavior exceeds attention to appropriate
behavior, and contributes to the continuation of much
problem behavior.
White, 1975
MO SW-PBS
Managing “Minor” Behavior:
Non-Examples
• “How many times do I have to tell you to work
quietly?”
• “Didn’t I just tell you to get started?”
• “Why are you talking while I‘m talking?”
• “Do you want me to send you to the office?”
• “What do you think you are doing?”
• “Quit it right now…stop being so antsy!”
• “If you don’t stop bothering others you will have to
go to the Safe Seat.”
MO SW-PBS
General Considerations: Responding to
“Minor” Misbehavior
•
•
•
•
•
•
Consistency
Active supervision
Calm, immediate response
Specific, yet brief then disengage
Quiet, respectful contact with student
Refocus class, if needed
MO SW-PBS
Managing Minor Behavior
Actions to minimize the misbehavior before it gets out
of hand and requires more extensive intervention:
• Proximity Control
• Signal or Non-Verbal Cue
• Ignore/Attend/Praise
Unobtrusive • Carried out quickly during instruction
MO SW-PBS
189
Managing Minor Behavior
Proximity
Control
The strategic placement/movement by the teacher in order
to encourage positive behavior. The teacher is a source of
protection and strength, helping the student to control
impulses.
Signal or
Non-verbal
Cue
Non-verbal techniques such as sustained eye contact, hand
gestures, a handclap, finger snap, clearing one’s throat, etc.
suggesting that the teacher is aware of the behavior and
prepared to intervene if it continues.
Ignore/Atten
d/Praise
Uses the power of praise or positive feedback. The teacher
praises an appropriately behaving student in the proximity
of the inappropriately behaving student. The praise serves
as a prompt. When the student exhibits the desired
behavior, attention and praise are then provided.
Activity: Managing Minor Behavior
Reflect-Teach
Get into groups of 3 and number off 1 to 3. Each
person take a technique associated with your number
and offer examples of its use, sharing when it might
be most appropriate. Be prepared to share.
• #1 – Proximity Control
• #2 – Signal or Non-verbal Cue
• #3 – Ignore/Attend/Praise
MO SW-PBS
190
Responding to Inappropriate Behavior
A continuum of direct error correction strategies for inappropriate
behaviors that continue or do not respond to simple management
techniques.
•
•
•
•
Re-direct
Re-teach
Provide Choice
Student Conference
Done privately • Match to frequency & severity of behavior
• Increase rates of teaching and praise
MO SW-PBS
191
Instructional Responses to Inappropriate
Behavior
Re-Direct
Brief, clear, private verbal reminder of the expected
behavior. A re-statement of school-wide and non-classroom
behavior, or classroom procedure.
Re-teach
Builds on the re-direct by specifically instructing the
student on exactly what should be done.
Provide
Choice
Student
Conference
Can be used when a re-direct or re-teaching have not
worked. A statement of two alternatives–the preferred or
desired behavior or a less preferred choice.
Lengthier re-teaching or problem solving. Discusses the
behavior of concern, teaches the desired behavior, provides
reasons why it is important, and a plan is made for future
use. Can include role-play or practice.
Re-Direct
“Janice, it is time to be responsible and work on
your math assignment.”
“Frank, please be respectful and listen to Jamal.”
“Right now we are all being safe and sitting
criss-cross.”
“If you want to share a thought Tim, you need to
be respectful and raise your hand.”
MO SW-PBS
Re-Teach
The teacher had this private re-teaching session:
“Alan, just a minute ago when I asked you to return to your
seat, you glared at me and said, ‘I’m busy, just a minute.’
What you need to do whenever anyone gives you an
instruction is to look right at them, say okay or acknowledge
the instruction, and begin to do what you were asked within
five seconds.
Do you understand? Are you ready to give it a try? Here is an
instruction….Get out your math book and begin doing the odd
problems on page 270.”
Very nice! You looked, said okay, and did what I asked
immediately. I’m going to give you some other chances to
practice later. Thank you for listening to me, Alan.”
MO SW-PBS
Re-teach
Privately the teacher had re-taught:
“Jason, you need to be on task right now. That means:
your desk is clear or everything but your book and
notebook, you begin working right away, continue
working until done, and if you need help, you raise
your hand. Do you have any questions about what ‘on
task’ means or what you are to be doing right now? Let
me see you do the first step. (Pause) Nice job, Jason. It
looks like you are ready to work. I’ll be watching for
you to be on task today. Raise your hand if you need
help.”
MO SW-PBS
Provide Choice
• “Jason, you are asked to get on-task and begin
working….or you can do this work later today during
our special activity.”
• “Sue, you can work here at your seat quietly without
talking with neighbors… or you can work in the student
office.”
• “Eric, you can walk quietly with your hands to your
self…or you can go to the end of the line and walk with
me.”
• “Jimmy, you can play nicely and share your toy with
Ellen… or you can put it away and play with something
else.”
MO SW-PBS
Student Conference
“Max, I know you were upset because the group didn’t include you. You
responded by calling them names and saying, ‘You said I could play.’
A respectful way to handle this is to just walk away and report to an adult.
If you can do that, you won’t get into arguments and someone might be able
to help you join the group. Yelling and name calling doesn’t help solve the
problem. Do you understand?
Max, let’s think of some things you could say to ask to join a group. How
about, ‘Hey guys, can I join your game?’ or ‘Who would like to start a new
game with me?’
Still someone might tell you ‘No.’ So, the next time someone tells you can’t
join their group, how will you handle it?
That’s great, Max. Let me know if I can help you with that.
MO SW-PBS
Student Conference
“Jason, several times today you have been off-task, talking with neighbors or drawing.
When you are given an assignment, you need to get your materials out quickly, clear
your desk of other things, begin working immediately, and keep working until finished.
If you have a question, raise your hand and wait quietly. If you can go on with your
work while waiting that is even better.
When you stay on-task, Jason, you can get done what you have to do quickly and then
move on to things you enjoy. You may also have less homework. Does that make
sense?
Jason, tell me what you will do next time you are given an assignment. (Jason
responds)
How can I help you to do that? (Jason responds) You’re going to have another
opportunity to practice this later this afternoon. Do I have your commitment to do
what we’ve talked about, Jason?
Thanks for listening. You did a nice job accepting some feedback, Jason. I’m going to
be watching to see if I can catch you on-task.”
MO SW-PBS
Activity: Responding to Inappropriate Behavior
Reflect and Model
Number off by 4s. Together reflect on the strategy
associated with your number. Discuss how to use the
strategy and offer examples of its best use. Be prepared to
model your strategy with the larger group.
• #1 – Re-Direct
• #2 – Re-Teach
• #3 – Provide Choice
• #4 – Student Conference
MO SW-PBS
191
Activity: Practice Selecting Techniques
Using Handout entitled “Practice Selecting Techniques
to Effectively Address Inappropriate Behavior”,
answer the following questions for each scenario:
• Which technique or strategy is the best response
for each scenario?
• Why?
MO SW-PBS
192
Considerations for Error Correction
• Don’t overlook minor misbehavior; don’t avoid
correcting and teaching.
• Embrace correction as a tool to truly help students;
correction is not punitive, it is instructional.
• Create an expectation for correction, an environment
where corrective feedback is the norm.
• Always correct privately; use preferred adult
behaviors that maintain respect for the student.
MO SW-PBS
Considerations for Error Correction–Continued
• When the student demonstrates the desired behavior,
always follow with praise or positive feedback.
• Use the strategy that is the least intrusive for the
behavior and it’s frequency or severity.
• When inappropriate behavior occurs, increase teaching
(lessons, pre-corrects) and rates of encouragement
(positive feedback).
• When needed, pair instructional error correction
strategies with an additional consequence.
MO SW-PBS
“When everyone handles infractions with
consistent feedback, students learn that
what happens when they misbehave is
procedure not personal.”
Bob Algozzine, 2000
MO SW-PBS
Using Additional Consequences
193
Consequences: Basic Understandings
• Consequences are not punitive.
• Consistency, not size is important.
• Consequences should be selected
individually.
• Warning systems promote chronicity.
• Logical consequences are often more
effective.
MO SW-PBS
Some Possible Consequences for Minor
Misbehavior
• Being detained for teaching
• Planning or problem
solving
• Extra practice of
social/behavioral skill
• Make up missed work
• Restitution
• Mediation essay
• Teach others
• Phone call to parents
• Alteration of activity
• Temporary removal from
activity until learning occurs
• Make amends to others
• Loss of privilege
• Contract
• Parent conferences
• Send note home
195
How to Transition
1. When you hear teacher’s signal, begin transition in 3-5
seconds
2. Put materials away quickly and get what is needed for
next activity
3. Move quietly and quickly
4. Keep hands and feet to self
5. When ready (new materials, new location), give
teacher your full attention
MO SW-PBS
Menu of Consequences
Classroom Transitions
• Go back to seat and do again until reach criterion
• Re-teach procedure with class; practice several times
• Delayed start to activity and related outcomes (less time
•
•
•
•
•
•
for work in class = homework, delay in getting out to
recess, lunch, etc.)
Individual re-teaching or conference
Role-play/practice at selected time
Group or individual instruction just prior to next transition
Behavior plan or mediation essay
Reflection checklist
Self-monitoring
MO SW-PBS
Science Laboratory
1. Work with assigned partner
2. Participate; do your share of work
3. Stay at your work station except
when getting supplies
4. Raise your hand for assistance
5. Follow all instructions carefully
6. Talk should be quiet and work related
7. When finished, double check your worksheet,
then read references for today’s lesson
MO SW-PBS
Menu of Consequences
Science Laboratory
• Re-direct or re-teach
• Loss of/reduced participation points
• Return to desk (individual, pair or entire group) briefly for reteaching; try again (may result in more work to do at home, or
delay in preferred activity, etc.)
• Loss of privilege to participate for this period; do alternative
written assignment
• Being detained after class for re-teaching or conference
• Group or individual instruction just prior to next lab activity
• Behavior plan or mediation essay
• Reflection checklist
MO SW-PBS
196
Chronic Minor Misbehavior
• Repetitive misbehavior means the current response
is not helping the student learn the expectations, just
like repetitive academic errors signals the student
has not learned the material.
• Is it a skill deficit or a performance deficit?
• Chronic minor misbehaviors may require problemsolving with other staff and parents or an office
referral.
MO SW-PBS
Summary: Responding to “Minor” Behavior
• Address misbehavior consistently and quickly, while still minor.
• Use the strategy that is the least intrusive yet still appropriate for
the frequency or severity of behavior.
• If efforts to re-teach are not resulting in behavior change, consider
including an additional consequence.
• Always pair a consequence with teaching the desired behavior.
• When problem behavior occurs, increase rate of positive feedback;
maintain a 4:1 ratio.
• When problem behavior occurs, increase teaching (lessons and precorrects).
• Chronic behaviors may require problem-solving with other staff and
parents or an office referral.
MO SW-PBS
Questions
MO SW-PBS
References
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Alberto, P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (2012). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (8th ed.). Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Pearson.
Costenbader, V., & Markson, S. (1998). School suspension: A study with secondary school students. Journal
of School Psychology, 36, 59–82.
Evertson, C.M., Emmer, E. T. & Worsham, M.E. (2003). Classroom management for elementary teachers
(6th Ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Freiberg, J., Stein, T., & Huang, S. (1995). Effects of a classroom management intervention on student
achievement in inner-city elementary schools. Educational Research and Evaluation, 1, 36-66.
Good, T.J., and J. Brophy. (2000). Looking into classrooms. 8th ed. New York: Longman.
Lewis, T. J. & Sugai, G. (1999). Effective behavior support: A systems approach to proactive schoolwide
management. Focus on Exceptional Children, 31(6), 1-24.
Mayer, G.R., & Sulzer-Azaroff, B. (1990). Interventions for vandalism. In G. Stoner, M.R. Shinn, & H.M.
Walker (Eds.), Interventions for achievement and behavior problems (monograph). Washington, DC:
National Association of School Psychologists.
Skiba, R.J., Peterson, R.L., & Williams, T. (1997). Office referrals and suspension: Disciplinary intervention in
middle schools. Education & Treatment of Children, 20(3), 295-316.
Shores, R.E., Gunter, P.L., & Jack, S.L. (1993). Classroom management strategies: Are they setting events
for coercion? Behavioral Disorders, 18, 92-102.
Walker, H., Colvin, G., & Ramsey, E. (1995). Antisocial behavior in school: Strategies and best practices.
Pacific Grove, CA: Books/Cole.
White, M. A. (1975). Natural rates of teacher approval and disapproval in the classroom. Journal of Applied
Behavioral Analysis, 8(4), 367-372.
For More Information
• Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behavior
Support
websitehttp://pbismissouri.org/educators/eff
ective-class-practice

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