One of LTM’s most distinctive features is it organization of information. the task of retrieving information from LTM is vastly different from that of retrieving information from STM. In STM the search-retrieve task involves scanning only 7 2 items to locate the relevant information. However LTM stores such a vast amount of information that there is a need for some form of organization to assist the storage and retrieval processes. For example, in 1953 Bousfield did an experiment, he asked participants to memories a list of 60 words that could be grouped into four categories: animal, vegetable, name and occupations. this word were in random order and participants were not aware of it. the participants could still recall them in group or clusters according to particular categories. The research concluded that the list of words that had been stored in LTM according to organized categories. Semantic Network Theory There are general agreement among psychologists that information stored in LTM is both organized and associated with other information held in the LTM system. However, different theories have been developed to describe and explain how the vast amount of information is stored and organized in LTM. One of the more widely accepted theories is the Semantic network theory. Semantic Network Theory Semantic Network Theory proposes that information in LTM is organized systematically in the form of overlapping network or grids of concepts that are interconnected and interrelated by meaningful links. Semantic Network Theory According to this model, each concept, called a node, is linked with a number of other nodes. Thus, when retrieve information, the activation of one node causes other related nodes to be activated also. This system of storing information in terms of meaning is quite an effective means of storage or filling system, which enables efficient and effective retrieval of information. Semantic Network Theory According to Semantic Network Theory, the retrieval of information from LTM begins with someone searching for a particular region of the memory and then tracing associations for links among memories in the regions, rather than randomly searching the vast information stores in LTM. This is like a search engine on the internet.(google) Semantic Network Theory Semantic Network Theory also proposes that a specific retrieval cue activates relevant nodes, which in turn activates other nodes to which they are linked. This shorter the links between nodes in the network, the stronger the association between them and the less time it takes to activate related concepts to which they are linked. Longer links between nodes indicate a weaker association between them and thus the longer it takes to activate the information that is the further away. Activation of one node stimulates activation of other links nodes across the network. The more nodes that are activated, the quicker the retrieval of information from LTM.