Organisation of information in LTM

 One of LTM’s most distinctive features is it organization of
 the task of retrieving information from LTM is vastly
different from that of retrieving information from STM. In
STM the search-retrieve task involves scanning only 7 2
items to locate the relevant information. However LTM
stores such a vast amount of information that there is a need
for some form of organization to assist the storage and
retrieval processes.
 For example, in 1953 Bousfield did an experiment, he asked
participants to memories a list of 60 words that could be
grouped into four categories: animal, vegetable, name and
occupations. this word were in random order and
participants were not aware of it. the participants could still
recall them in group or clusters according to particular
categories. The research concluded that the list of words that
had been stored in LTM according to organized categories.
Semantic Network Theory
 There are general agreement among psychologists that
information stored in LTM is both organized and
associated with other information held in the LTM
system. However, different theories have been
developed to describe and explain how the vast
amount of information is stored and organized in
 One of the more widely accepted theories is the
Semantic network theory.
Semantic Network Theory
 Semantic Network Theory proposes that
information in LTM is organized systematically in the
form of overlapping network or grids of concepts that
are interconnected and interrelated by meaningful
Semantic Network Theory
 According to this model, each concept, called a node,
is linked with a number of other nodes. Thus, when
retrieve information, the activation of one node causes
other related nodes to be activated also.
 This system of storing information in terms of
meaning is quite an effective means of storage or
filling system, which enables efficient and effective
retrieval of information.
Semantic Network Theory
 According to Semantic Network Theory, the retrieval
of information from LTM begins with someone
searching for a particular region of the memory and
then tracing associations for links among memories in
the regions, rather than randomly searching the vast
information stores in LTM.
 This is like a search engine on the internet.(google)
Semantic Network Theory
 Semantic Network Theory also proposes that a specific
retrieval cue activates relevant nodes, which in turn
activates other nodes to which they are linked.
This shorter the links between nodes in the network, the
stronger the association between them and the less time it
takes to activate related concepts to which they are linked.
Longer links between nodes indicate a weaker association
between them and thus the longer it takes to activate the
information that is the further away.
Activation of one node stimulates activation of other links
nodes across the network.
The more nodes that are activated, the quicker the retrieval
of information from LTM.

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