Permian: The Mass Extinction

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Permian: The
Mass
Extinction
By: Carrie Hager
Table of Contents:
• The Carboniferous Period

The Rate of Tectonics

The Environmental Conditions
• The Permian Period

The Formation of Pangea

Structures formed by Pangea

Environmental Conditions

Sea levels – Rising and Lowering (Comparing
Carboniferous vs. Permian)

Permian Plants and Animals (Existing)
• The Mass Extinction

Plants and Animals affected

The Theories behind the Mass extinction
Carboniferous
Period
• Era: Late
Paleozoic
• 350 to 290
Million Years
Ago
• Collision of
Laurussia Europe and
North America
into Gondwana
- Africa &
South America
Carboniferous Period Cont.
• Separated into two
epochs: Mississippian
(Lower Carboniferous) and
the Pennsylvanian (Upper
Carboniferous)
• Mississippian is
distinguished by the
Limestone
• Pennsylvanian is
distinguished by the coalbearing layers
Rate of Tectonics
• The collision of Laurasia
and Gondwana formed
the Ural Mountains.
• When Laurasia and
Gondwana later collide
together to form the
super continent pangea,
the Appalachian belt
and the Hercynian
Mountains in Europe
were formed.
Environmental Conditions Carboniferous
• Famous for Coal
Swamps
• Transgression – Plant
material didn’t decay
when the sea covered
the land. This caused
pressure and heat to
build up over millions of
years, eventually
transforming the plant
material into coal.
The Permian
Period
• Last Period of The
Paleozoic Era
• 290 to 248 Million
years ago
• Famous for the
Largest Mass
Extinction to date
• The
Supercontinent of
Pangea formed
The Permian Period Cont.
• Pictured left:
– The Early and Late
divisions of the Permian
period.
The Formation of
Pangea
• Crustal plates moved
the land together to
form Pangea.
• Pangea continued to
move northward while
forming mountains
along the way.
• Pangea surrounded one
sea named, Tethys Sea
• The Rest of the plant
was covered by one
ocean named,
Panthalassa
• Pangea stretched from
the North pole to the
South pole
Impacted Structures:
Formed by Pangea
• The Ural Mountains were
formed during the
Carboniferous period,
but when Pangea formed
the Ural Mountains were
pushed together to form
a larger chain of
mountains
Carboniferous Period
• The Upper
Carboniferous period
alternated between a
terrestrialand marine
environment.
• This environment took
place as glaciations
caused the seas to
transgress and regress.
• Glaciation decreased
because of a climate shift,
therefore, causing the
seas to no longer
transgress and regress as
much as they had during
the carboniferous period.
• Shallow seas covered 35%
of the continents during
the middle Permian and
15% at the end
Permian Period
Environmental Conditions - Permian
• Due to Pangea being so
large, the middle of the
continent did not benefit
from the ocean waters.
Therefore, creating a
Dessert environment. This
environment changed
between extremely hot
and cold temperatures. In
some places their had
never been one drop of
rain because of the
distance of the ocean.
Permian: Plants
• Pictured (Left): The
Ginkgo plant. This
plant had seeds and
was part of the
gymnosperms
classification. This type
of plant still exists
today.
• Conifers – Trees,
consisting of seeds
inside of cones.
(Exists today)
• Pictured (Right):
Archosuars
• Pelycosaurs,
Dimetrodon, and
Therapsids were types
of mammals that could
survive in the dessert
conditions of the
Permian period.
Permian: Animals
The Mass Extinction: Facts
• The Mass Extinction
was the largest
extinction recorded
in history to date.
• In the seas, 90 to
95% of species went
extinct. On land, the
damage was less
severe but caused 70
to 80% to perish.
Animals and Plants affected by the
Mass Extinction
• Pictured Right:
The Dimetrodon
• Marine Species:
Trilobites, rugose and
tabulate corals, and
blastoids.
• Reduced species: Ammonoids, Sharks, and Bony Fish.
• Land Species:
•
Dimetrodon, Archosuars, and Pelycosaurs.
• Just to name a few.
Theories of Mass Extinction
• Volcanic Activity: Large
eruptions can cause a
temperature drop around
the globe.
• Meteors/Comets: Meteor
or Comet hit the plant,
causing a change in
temperature (ex.
glaciation) and sea levels.
• Formation of Pangea:
Ruled out by many
because it took place in
middle and early Permian.
Conclusion
• The Permian Mass
Extinction brought the
Paleozoic Era to a end.
• Therefore, moving to
the Mesozoic Era
Review of Content
• The Carboniferous Period

The Rate of Tectonics

The Environmental Conditions
• The Permian Period

The Formation of Pangea

Structures formed by Pangea

Environmental Conditions

Sea levels – Rising and Lowering (Comparing Carboniferous vs.
Permian)

Permian Plants and Animals (Existing)
• The Mass Extinction

Plants and Animals affected

The Theories behind the Mass extinction
• Concluding to my… Cited References
Cited References
Annenberg Media, 2009, Unit 12 Biodiversity – Animations & Images. Retrieved
January 21, 2010 from
http://www.learner.org/courses/biology/units/biodiv/images.html
Forney, Gerald, 1975, The University of Chicago Press, Permo-Triassic Sea-Level
Change. Retrieved January 21, 2010 from
http://www.jstor.org/pss/30061082?cookieSet=1
National Geographic Society, 2010, Mass Extinctions/Permian
Extinction/Carboniferous. Retrieved January 21, 2010 from
http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/prehistoric-world/massextinction.html
S. Rieboldt, 2002, Geological Society of America (GSA), Carboniferous. Retrieved
January 21, 2010 from
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/carboniferous/carboniferous.html
S. Rieboldt, 2002, Geological Society of America (GSA), Permian. January 21, 2010
retrieved from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/permian/permian.html
Scotese, Christopher, 2003, At the end of the Permian was Greatest Extinction of All
Time. Retrieved January 21, 2010 from http://www.scotese.com/newpage5.htm

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