Presentation - Irrigation Australia

Report
Aerated water irrigation on table grapes
Surya P. Bhattarai, David J. Midmore and Lance
Pendergast
Introduction & outline

Background to oxygation research

Introduction to concept
“Oxygation”, what is it?

Brief overview of research to date

Grapes

Future focus / activities
Plant / oxygen

Active roots are major sinks for oxygen in plants
-consume about x 9 their volume of oxygen gas
each day

In plant cells, oxygen participates in over 200
different cellular chemical reactions

95 % oxygen consumption is devoted towards energy
needs (production of ATP) from carbohydrates)

Poor soil aeration is a major abiotic stress that limits
the success of crops
Bigger wetting front in clay
Wetting front
ubiquitous of
SDI
Left: Wetting front after 10 h irrigation @ Right: Simulated wetting front after 12 h irrigation applied at 1.25 l h-1
1.7 l h-1 from simulated emitter at 0.30 m from emitter installed at a depth of 0.40 m in a sandy (left) and clay
in a loamy soil (Battam et al., 2003).
(right) soil (Source: Thorburn et al., 2001)
[email protected]
Research for Impact (Concept testing-industry adoption)
Driver: Improving crop water productivity
Issue: Impeded soil aeration associated with irrigation
Approach: Aerated water irrigation (oxygation)
Theory-1
M-Air injector
Seair
Mixaerator
Test
Verify
Adopt
Improve
Diversify
Field trials, research outreach and industry collaboration for oxygation
of annual and perennial crops
6
Cotton field trials
Location: Nyang, Emerald, Soil: Vertosol, Irrigation: SDI, Trt:
Oxygation & control, Replication:~6, Plot size:0.4 ha, Paddock:
0.4 x 12=4.8ha, Air injector: 12% by MI-1583, Irrigation: 6.3ML/ha
Lint yield (bales/ha) in vertosol over seven seasons
Results: 14.7% higher lint yield
Pineapple @Valley Syndicate, Yeppoon
Planting:24/10/07 (GC-2), Oxygation:14/03/08, Harvest:05/01-17/04/09, Mazzei-1583, Drip-Hydro PC 16/20 0.3m
1.2L/hr
Treatments
1Harvested
yield (t/ha)
2Industry
yield (t/ha)
Phytophthora
(% plants)
Main crop
Ratoon
Total
Main crop
Ratoon
Total
Control
68.20
38.17
106.37
50.92
18.25
69.17
4.9
Oxygation
79.60
54.11
133.71
53.08
20.18
73.26
3.0
Noirrigation
71.30
19.07
90.37
49.50
16.42
65.92
10.5
P value
0.005
0.001
0.032
0.295
0.051
0.076
<0.001
LSD(p≤0.05)
6.43
10.76
12.36
n.s.
3.17
7.39
1.379
3.0
Control
Oxygation
-1
Cumulative irrigation (ML ha )
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
1/1/08
1/7/08
1/1/09
1/7/09
1/1/10
1/7/10
1/1/11
Table grapes at Emerald QLD
Industries
Table grapes site 1
Table grapes site 2
Collaborator
Mr Jim Sands/Don Wills (completed)
Mr Glen Pearmine (Continuing)
Address
AACC, Emerald Campus, QLD 4720
Glency grape, Talafa Rd, QLD 4720
Crop history
Planted 2001/2002
Planted 2001/2002
Soil type
Sandy loam
Vertosols
Variety
Flame
Menindee
Treatments
Oxygation and control, surface and
subsurface drip irrigation, 5 reps
Oxygation & control, above ground
drip irrigation, 4 replications
Plot size
100x90m,
30 rows @ 3 m x 2.5 spacing
1.13 ha G block, 142 m long
28 rows@ 3m x 2.5m spacing
Air injector
Mazzei air injector MI 1078
Mazzei air injector MI 1078
Oxygation
12% commenced 14/02/09
12% commenced 24/03/09
Crop stage
Bearing, whole harvest Dec 2010
Bearing, fruit harvest Dec 2009-13
Preliminary data
on crop and soil
Crop growth, biomass, irrigation,
drainage, soil moisture,
Fruit setting and yield, crop water
inputs, infiltration, gas exchange
Irrigation details
Netafim drip, surface and
Netafim drip tube above ground @
Table . Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll content, soil fluorescien (surrogate of microbial load), and
soil respiration with and without oxygation in grapevine plot at Emerald, CQ, Australia.
Treatments
Leaf
photosynthesis
(µ mol/m2/S)
Stomatal
conductance
( mol/m2/S)
Transpiration rate Leaf
chlorophyll
(mmol/m2/S)
(SPAD)
Fluorescien
(µg /g
dwsoil/h)
Soil
respiration
(g CO2/m2/h)
Control
4.8
0.09
6.46
46.7
242
1.697
Oxygation
SE
5.8
0.11
7.45
50.3
157
1.753
1.6
0.04
1.42
2.05
ns
0.061
Figure : Effects of oxygation and depth
(Deep = 15cm, Shallow = 2cm) of drip
placement on dry weight of grape
variety Flame at pattern of soil AACC,
Emerald, CQ, Australia.
Table. Marketable berry yield and load per plant for table grapes (Menindee)
with and without oxygation ( Emerald, Central QLD).
Treatment
Control
2009/10
Market
Berry
yield
load
(t/ha)
(kg/vine)
5.72
4.57
2010/11
Market
Berry
yield
load
(t/ha)
(kg/vine)
10.83
8.65
2011/12
Market
Berry
yield
load
(t/ha)
(kg/vine)
6.71
5.36
Average
Market
Berry
yield
load
(t/ha)
(kg/vine)
7.60
6.19
Oxygation
6.04
4.83
11.28
9.01
8.27
6.61
8.53
6.82
SE
1.29
1.03
2.15
1.72
1.26
1.01
1.57
1.25
9
Cumulative irrigation (ML/ha)
8
Oxygation
7
Control
6
5
4
3
2
1
16/05/12
16/02/12
16/11/11
16/08/11
16/05/11
16/02/11
16/11/10
Figure : Soil respiration
immediately after irrigation
in oxygation and control plot
16/08/10
0
Oxygation
Monitoring of bubbles in irrigation water
Uniformity of bubble distribution
Collaboration
•ANSTO, Netafim Australia
•CQU computational sciences.
Effect of surfactant
Cost:benefit analysis
Table: Details of cost to retro-fit air injection to 0.4 ha plots cotton SDI site
Item
Venturi injector*
PVC elbows
PVC t-pieces
Valves
Pressure gauges
Unit
1
4
2
2
2
Price ($)
265
10
10
45
30
TOTAL
$475
Cost of oxygation 1 ha (475 x 2.5) = $1187
* Costs would be less if installed with new system
Table: Details of returns per ha
Yield
Yield
(control) (Oxygation)
8.756
7.628
Yield
difference
(bale/ha)
Cotton price
($/bale)
Return to
investment
1.128
500
$562.5
Return to investment , yrs (1187/562.5)
2.1yrs
Industry perspective

System compatibility with current
operation(retrofitting)

Ease of operation (“passive”)

Need for extension/technical support

Industry / grower enthusiasm?

Increased opportunity for collaborations
Future activities on oxygation

Long term effects on soil properties

Nutrient dynamics & movement of pollutants

Aerated water for furrow irrigation

Extending adoption by industries (sugarcane, hort)

Diversification (GHG- NOx, smart lawn-urban water security)

Uniformity of air distribution in the field

Optimization of drip/SDI
Acknowledgements
•NPSI, Guy Roth
•HAL
•DAFF Emerald
•Netafim Australia
•Particular thanks to the Growers
- Tony Ronnfeldt
- Glen Pearmine
- John Crainey
Oxygation
PARTNERSHIP and Collaboration
Growth
Thank you

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