Climate Change and Energy

Report
AWMA Southern Section
2011 Annual Meeting & Technical Conference
Pine Mountain, GA
August 5, 2011
Beverly Banister, Director
Air, Pesticides, and Toxics Management Division
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Atlanta, GA
Today’s Topics…
 Update on the NAAQS
 Update on National Rulemakings for
Emissions Reductions from Stationary
Sources
 Clean Air Act Enforcement
 Update on Efforts to Reduce
Emissions from Mobile Sources
 Greenhouse Gases and Climate
change
 Cross Media Priorities
Update on the
NAAQS
Current Schedule for Ongoing NAAQS Reviews
POLLUTANT
MILESTONE
NO2 Primary
SO2 Primary
Ozone
Reconsideration
CO
PM
NO2/SO2
Secondary
Lead
Proposed
Rule
Jun 26, 2009
Nov 16, 2009
Jan 6, 2010
Jan 28, 2011
TBD
July 12, 2011
Jan 2014
Final Rule
Jan 22, 2010
Jun 2, 2010
TBD
Aug 12, 2011
TBD
Mar 20, 2012
Nov 2014
NOTES:
Underlined dates indicate court-ordered or settlement agreement deadlines; TBD – to be determined
Next Ozone Review: Proposal in Sept 2013 and Final in Jun 2014
For more information see: http://epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/
Air Monitoring Rule Dates
Pollutant
Date of Proposed
or Final Rule
• Proposed monitoring
Date Monitors must
Operate by:
• Monitoring season changes
O3
rule published July 16,
2009
• Final rule expected in
Summer 2011
would take effect on first day of
revised monitoring season
• Revisions to the network would
be staggered over 2013-2014 or
later
Pb
Final rule signed
December 14, 2010
December 27, 2011
NO2
Final rule signed
January 25, 2010
January 1, 2013
CO
Proposed rule published
February 11, 2011
January 1, 2013
SO2
Final rule signed
June 22, 2010
January 1, 2013
Update on National
Rulemakings for
Emissions Reductions
from Stationary Sources
Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR)
 On July 6, 2011, EPA finalized CSAPR
 Requires 27 states to significantly improve air quality by
reducing power plant emissions that contribute to ozone
and/or fine particle pollution in other states
 Replaces EPA's 2005 Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR)
Air Quality in Any One Place Is Affected by Sources in
Many States
 Air pollution can travel hundreds of miles and cause multiple health and
environmental problems on regional or national scales
 This rule reduces air emissions contributing to PM2.5 and ozone nonattainment
that often travel across state lines:
SO2 and NOX contribute to PM2.5 transport
 NOX contributes to ozone transport

 Many areas are still violating the 1997 ozone
and the 1997 and 2006 PM2.5 health-based air
quality standards
 Attaining national ambient air quality
standards will require some combination of
emission reductions from:
Sources located in or near nonattainment areas
(local pollution) and
 Sources located further from the nonattainment area
(transported pollution)

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Cross-State Air Pollution Rule States
• Cross-State Air Pollution
Rule includes separate
requirements for:
• Annual SO2 reductions
• Annual NOx reductions
• Ozone-season NOx
reductions
*This map includes states covered in the supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking
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Upwind-Downwind Linkages in CSAPR States
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Estimated Annual Number of Adverse Health Effects
Avoided Due to Implementing the CSAPR*
Health Effect
Number of Cases Avoided
Premature mortality
13,000 to 34,000
Non-fatal heart attacks
15,000
Hospital and emergency department visits
19,000
Acute bronchitis
19,000
Upper and lower respiratory symptoms
420,000
Aggravated asthma
400,000
Days when people miss work or school
1,800,000
*Impacts
avoided due to improvements in PM2.5 and ozone air quality in 2014
Power Plant Mercury and Air Toxics Standard
 Proposed in Federal Register May 3, 2011

First national standards to reduce emissions of toxic air pollutants from new and existing coal- and oil-fired power plants
– often the biggest contributors to air pollution
 Under court order to promulgate final standards by
November 2011
 Standards would reduce emissions of:




Metals, including mercury (Hg), arsenic, chromium, and nickel
Acid gases, including hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hydrogen
fluoride (HF)
Particulate matter
These pollutants are linked to cancer, IQ loss, heart disease,
lung disease and premature death
 Standards create uniform emissions-control
requirements based on proven, currently in-use
technologies and processes
 Compliance timeline set by Clean Air Act: up to 4 years
(3 years plus an additional year if granted by the permitting authority)
 EPA is also proposing a new source performance standard (NSPS) for particulate,
sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions from new sources
http://www.epa.gov/airquality/powerplanttoxics/actions.html
OIL AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY PROPOSAL
 July 28, 2011 - EPA proposed suite of cost-effective regulations to
reduce harmful air pollution from the oil and natural gas industry
 Based on proven technology and best practices that the oil and gas industry
is using in some states today
 Includes the first federal air standards for wells that are hydraulically
fractured, along with requirements for several other sources of pollution in
the oil and gas industry that currently are not regulated at the federal level.
 Includes requirements for storage tanks and other types of equipment
 Relies on operators' ability to capture and sell natural gas that currently
escapes into the air
 Includes four air regulations
 NSPS for VOCs
 NSPS for sulfur dioxide
 RTR* for oil and natural gas production
 RTR* for natural gas transmission and storage
*Air Toxics Risk and Technology Review (RTR) of existing air toxics standards
Benefits of this Rule are Significant
 Cuts emissions of smog-forming volatile organic
compounds (VOCs), air toxics such as benzene, and
sulfur dioxide
 VOCs: 540,000 tons, an industry-wide reduction of 25%
 Methane: 3.4M tons (65M metric tons CO2e), a reduction of about 26%
 Air Toxics: 38,000 tons, a reduction of nearly 30%
 Estimated revenues from selling captured gas are
significant – proposed rule is anticipated to quickly result
in a net savings of nearly $30 million annually, while
significantly reducing pollution from this expanding
industry
www.epa.gov/airquality/oilandgas
Clean Air Act
Enforcement
CAA Enforcement
 Air Toxics
 Leak Detection and Repair, Industrial Flares, and
Excess Emissions
 NSR/PSD Priorities
 Glass Manufacturing, Cement
Manufacturing, Acid Manufacturing,
and Coal-Fired Utilities
 Port of Huntington Initiative
 Chesapeake Bay Initiative
Update on Efforts to
Reduce Emissions
from Mobile
Sources
Southeast Diesel Collaborative
 Over 900 partners
 Funding
 EPA Grants: ~ $65M
 By the Numbers:
 Partner Investment (leveraged): ~
$657M
 450 Projects
 53,000 engines
 >513K tons of emissions reduced
 ~14K buses, >3,000,000 children
impacted
 FY 2011 SEDC Grant
Competition
 Awards pending approval of EPA
FY 2011 budget (expect 2-3 project
awards funded at $750K to $2M)
www.southeastdiesel.org
Mobile Emissions Modeling and Training
 A new version of the MOtor Vehicle Emission
Simulator (MOVES) (versions 2010a) is available
 Incorporates new car and light truck energy and
greenhouse gas rates and a number of other
improvements
 Is used to calculate transportation project mobile
source emissions
 Emissions are used in air quality
modeling for transportation
conformity analyses
Mobile Emissions Modeling and Training
 Training for MOVES 2010a is available
 For information on the 2-day MOVES2010a course, see:
http://www.epa.gov/otaq/models/moves/trainingsessions.htm
 A 3-Day PM Quantitative Hot-Spot Modeling Course
(using MOVES 2010a) will be held in Atlanta on
September 13 – 15, 2011
 Course is designed for modelers
 To register contact Rick Smith: [email protected]
New Fuel Economy Standards
http://www.epa.gov/otaq/climate/regulations.htm#1-1
Greenhouse Gases
and Climate Change
Some key facts about Region 4….
 Home to 20% of the population (with a large EJ component)
 We generated about 23% of electricity in U.S. (burning coal is a
primary fuel source) in 2008
 Responsible for about 25% of
U.S. CO2 emissions (from power
production) in 2008
 We use more fuel and drive more
miles than any other Region
Energy Information Administration
Federal Highways Administration
U.S. Census Bureau
Energy and Climate Change at EPA Region 4
 Our Priority Work Areas for FY11
 Reduce Energy Use: Actions to Promote Energy Efficiency
and Conservation (e.g., Energy Star)
 Mitigation: Actions to Reduce
Greenhouse Gases (Mandatory
rules, Voluntary programs)
 Adaptation: Actions to Understand
and Respond to Unavoidable
Changes
 Education: Actions to Inform
Internal and External Stakeholders
Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force
 Executive Order of October 5, 2009, called on the Task Force to recommend how the
policies and practices of Federal agencies can be made compatible with and reinforce a
national climate change adaptation strategy
 Task Force began meeting in Spring 2009
 Co-chaired by the White House CEQ,
 NOAA, and the OSTP
 Task Force is composed of more than 20 Federal
agencies and Executive branch offices
 Report completed October 5, 2010
 Federal Agencies currently preparing Agencyspecific adaptation plans
http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ceq/initiatives/adaptation
Policy Goals & Recommended Actions for
the Federal Government
 Encourage and Mainstream Adaptation Planning across the Federal
Government
 Improve Integration of Science into Decision Making
 Address Key Cross-Cutting Issues





Improve water resource management in a changing climate
Protect human health by addressing climate change in public health activities
Build resilience to climate change in communities
Facilitate the incorporation of climate change risks into insurance mechanisms
Address additional cross‐cutting issues
 Enhance Efforts to Lead and Support International Adaptation
 Coordinate Capabilities of the Federal Government to Support
Adaptation
Cross Media
Priorities
Children’s Environmental Health (CEH)
Multiple CEH Concerns
in US and Region 4
Our Priority Work Areas for FY11
Jacksonville Showcase Community
Provide outreach/training in the community
on lead, asbestos, asthma, and integrated
pest management
Outdoor
Air Pollution
(e.g., Ozone,
Particles)
Indoor
Air Pollution
(e.g., Radon, ETS)
Climate Change
Lead,
Mercury,
Other Toxics
Drinking Water
Contaminants
UV
Radiation
Pesticides
Appalachia
Identify and work with schools and
communities to address asthma and air
toxics, asbestos, lead, and pesticide
exposures
Coretta Scott King Young Women’s
Leadership Academy
Further the working relationship with the
school, explore mentoring opportunities, and
opportunities for outreach and education in
the community served by the school
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Community Engagement & Environmental Justice
 Cleaning Up Our Communities
 Using all the tools at our disposal to focus on
making safer, healthier communities
 Maximize the potential of our brownfields program,
particularly to spur environmental cleanup and job
creation in disadvantaged communities
 Develop enhanced strategies for risk reduction in
our Superfund program, with stronger partnerships
with stakeholders affected by our cleanups
 Etc.
 Expanding the Conversation on
Environmentalism and Working for
Environmental Justice
 A new era of outreach and protection for
communities historically underrepresented in EPA
decision-making
 Build strong working relationships with tribes,
communities of color, economically distressed cities
and towns, young people and others
 Include environmental justice principles in all of our
decisions
North Birmingham, Alabama, Pilot Air Toxics
Monitoring Study
 Air toxics concentrations in North Birmingham communities will be
evaluated and compared to health risk numbers
 Air monitoring will occur for one year (began in June 2011)
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
 Metals

 24-h composite samples collected every 6 days; Met data also collected
Community Assessed
Fairmont
North Birmingham
Collegeville
Harriman Park
Monitor Location
Riggins School
Lewis Elementary
Hudson K-8 School
Shuttlesworth Monitoring Station
www.epa.gov/ttn
www.southeastdiesel.org
Questions?
www.epa.gov/cleanenergy
www.epa.gov/climatechange
www.epa.gov/crossstaterule/
Beverly Banister
U.S. EPA; Atlanta, GA
404-562-9077
www.epa.gov/airquality/oilandgas
www.epa.gov/airquality/powerplanttoxics/
www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ceq/initiatives/adaptation

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