Cyclotron

Report
Radiopharmaceutical
Production
Cyclotron Operations
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Cyclotron Operations
• The cyclotron is typically the core
of the radiopharmaceutical
production facility. If the
cyclotron is not functioning, all
other operations stop.
• Although the cyclotron was
invented more than 70 years
ago, the basic components are
the same now as they were then.
• The technology has improved to
the point where these are very
reliable machines and can be run
with a basic understanding of the
underlying principles
Contents
• History of the Cyclotron
• Basic Operation of the
Cyclotron
• Commercial Cyclotrons
►See a video by IBA
about the cyclotron
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Cyclotron History
Radiopharmaceutical
Production
•
The cyclotron was developed in the 1930’s in Berkeley,
California by E.O. Lawerence. His idea was to use a magnetic
field to constrain a charged particle to a circular path and use
the same acceleration voltage over and over again to add more
energy.
•
The number of cyclotrons in the world is growing at a very rapid
pace. In 2000 there were about 350 world-wide and in 2008, it
was estimated that the number had grown to nearly 600. The
expansion of clinical PET using FDG played and important role
in that growth.
•
If you wish to learn more about the history, here is a
presentation on the history of the cyclotron.
Cyclotron Operations
Contents
History of the Cyclotron
Basic Operation of the
Cyclotron
Commercial Cyclotrons
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Cyclotron History
Cyclotron Operations
Radiopharmaceutical
Production
•
Cyclotron Operations
Contents
History of the Cyclotron
Basic Operation of the
Cyclotron
The cyclotron creates an ion in the center and then uses a
radio-frequency electric field to accelerate the particle. Once
the particle has gained enough energy, it can be extracted from
the accelerating field and directed towards a target material in
order to carry out a nuclear reaction. There are several
advantages of cyclotrons over other types of accelerators.
These are:
– Cyclotrons have a single electrical driver, which saves both
money and power, since more expense may be allocated to
increasing efficiency.
– Cyclotrons produce a continuous stream of particles at the
target, so the average power is relatively high.
– The compactness of the device reduces other costs, such
as its foundations, radiation shielding, and the enclosing
building
Commercial Cyclotrons
•
A slightly more detailed description of Cyclotron operations is
available here.
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Cyclotron Basics
Commercial Cyclotron
Radiopharmaceutical
Production
•
Cyclotron Operations
Contents
History of the Cyclotron
Modern cyclotrons come in many sizes and energy ranges and
are commercially available from several manufacturers. They
range from rather small cyclotrons designed specifically to
produce fluorine-18 to large cyclotrons capable of producing a
wide range of radionuclides. A list of some of the more common
commercially produced cyclotrons is available here.
Basic Operation of the
Cyclotron
Commercial Cyclotrons
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Cyclotron Comparison
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