Some ayurvedic Aromatic Medicinal Plants - MSME

Report
A ROMA THERAPY
IN AYURVEDA
C ONCEPT
AND
T HERAPEUTIC
APPLICATIONS
N.SRIKANTH
A S S I S TA N T D I R E C TO R
C E N T R A L C O U N C I L F O R R E S E A R C H I N AY U RV E D I C S C I E N C E S
D E PA RT M E N T O F AY U S H
M I N I S T RY O F H E A LT H & F A M I LY W E L FA R E
G OVERNMENT OF I NDIA
1
S TART
2

OF PROCESS
Natural products

Botanical

Animal

Mineral
origins from India have initiated the
scientific quest of Drugs since antiquity.
3
S TART OF PROCESS
E VOLUTION
Period
Plants
OF I NDIAN PHARMACOPEIA
Remarks on changes
Literature
3000 BC 1000 BC
289
Building a Pharmacopoea
(Atharvaveda)
Vedic texts
1500 BC 500 AD
650
Incorporation / discarding
drugs
Ayurvedic Texts
•Charaka Samhita
•Sushrut Samhita
•Astanga Samgraha
500 AD1900 AD
2000
Incorporation / discarding
drugs
Varieties identified
Substitutes identified
Expansion in applications
16 major Nighantus
(like Dhanvantari
Bhavprakasha, Raja upto
Shaligram)
India is having the world’s richest flora, comprising of about 120 families of plants, comprising
1,30,000 species.
Ayurvedic texts cover about 2400 species of plants with their medicinal uses as described
by ancient Indian medical scholars.
10,000 herbs are used worldwide for medicinal purposes
4
R OOTS OF C LINICAL
E XPERIMENTATION AND D RUG T RIALS
Susruta’s Approach: Reverse Pharmacology

Test intervention (Tallingatwat)

Feasibility; observational design (Dristhaphalatwat)

System validation (Agamaatsya)
5
R OOTS OF C LINICAL
E XPERIMENTATION AND D RUG T RIALS
Charaka’s Approach: Meticulous design &
Emphasis on Reproducibility
 Feasible ideology / Hypothesis
(Budhi psyathi ya bhavaan)

Multi dimensional approach in planning &
assessment (Bahu karana yogajaan)

Appropriate design (Yukti-Yogna)

Perpetually valid outcome and reproducibility
(Yuktih trikalah)
S TART
6

OF PROCESS
Some of the Ayurvedic plants

Interesting leads for drug discovery

Structural modifications of active
principles leading to a cascade of new
“chemical” drugs

In global use and pharmacology research
7
P HYTO C HEMICAL C LASS
Source: Ehrman et al, J Chem Inf Model 2007; 47(2):254-263
M ARKET P OTENTIAL
8

Market comprising of Ayurvedic, Unani,
Siddha & Homoeopathic medicine is around
US $ 1.5 billion  Rs 8800 Crore.

Approximate share of Ayurvedic formulations
is 84% (Homeopathy 14%, Unani 2% and
Siddha less than 1%.)
U SE OF T RADITIONAL
M EDICINE
9
CHINA
40%
CHILE
71%
COLUMBIA
40%
INDIA
80-90%*
AUSTRALIA
48%
BELGIUM
70%
CANADA
70%
FRANCE
49%
USA
42%
UK
70%
NORTH IRELAND
90%
*Status and Role of AYUSH and Local Health Traditions Under National Rural
Health Mission- Report of a Study; National Health Systems Resource Centre,
Ministry of Health & Family Welfare Government of India New Delhi; 2010
WHO traditional medicine strategy 2002-2005. Document WHO/EDM/TRM/2002.
A ROMA THERAPY
10

AROMA indicates Fragrance &
therapy denotes treatment.

The therapy in which Aromatic
material
is
used
called
Aromatherapy.
F OUR MAJOR AREAS OF
11
APPLICATIONS
SNo.
Areas
Details
1
Aesthetic
Role in beauty and skin care
2
Psychological
Effects on moods /feelings
3
Holistic
Body mind and sprit integration
4
Medical
Maintenance of homoeostasis
A ROMA T HERAPY –
H ISTORICAL P ERSPECTIVE
12
SNo.
Details
Period
1
Vedic period
3000 BC.
2
Ayurveda samhitas
1500 BC - 500 AD
3
Egyptian papyri
1555 BC
4
Shine medical book
2700 BC.
5
Avicenna(Arabia)
980 AD-1037AD
6.
16 major Nighantus
(like Dhanvantari
Bhavprakasha, Raja
upto Shaligram)
500 AD1900 AD
A ROMA THERAPY -
13
H ISTORICAL OUTLOOK

Antiquity of use of medicinal and aromatic
plants, poly herbal, mineral based
formulations for therapeutic and cosmetic
purpose goes back to the Vedic period

Vedic literatures recount about

Nutritive

Immune enhancing
‘Sugandhim Pustivardhanam’
actions attributed to aromatic properties
A ROMA THERAPY -
14
H ISTORICAL OUTLOOK

A mention of importance of cosmetics is
highlighted in Mantras and descriptions on
gods and goddesses.

Number of Aromatic plants/ preparations
have been in use for

Psychosomatic disorders

As antimicrobial agents

As antiseptics
A ROMA THERAPY -
15
H ISTORICAL OUTLOOK

Description of medicinal and cosmetic utility
plants viz
 Kustha (Sassurea lappa)
 Chandana (Santalam album)
 Kumkum (Crocus sativus)
can be traced from oldest Indian literatures like
Upanishads, epics, etc.

Many cosmetics are described
aromatic in nature.
which are
A ROMA THERAPY -
16
H ISTORICAL OUTLOOK

Lord Dhanvantari the God of Ayurveda is the
Incarnation of Lord Vishnu.

Their description denotes the importance
and uses of Aromatic material like

Kasturi Tilakam
 Chandan Lepanam etc.

Gandhamadan, a mountain named after so,
harboring ample fragrant plants (Ramayan,
Vagbhata)
17
A ROMA THERAPY -
H ISTORICAL OUTLOOK
ANTI MICROBIAL ACTIVITY
18
A ROMA THERAPY H ISTORICAL OUTLOOK
ANTI MICROBIAL ACTIVITY
19
A ROMA THERAPY H ISTORICAL OUTLOOK
20
A ROMA THERAPY H ISTORICAL OUTLOOK
ANTI MICROBIAL ACTIVITY
21
A ROMA THERAPY -
H ISTORICAL OUTLOOK
C ONCEPT OF A ROMA IN
AYURVEDA
22

Aroma - as an integral component of Prithvi
Mahabhuta attributed with Gandha Guna
(fragrance)

Categorized as

Surabhi (compatible )

Asurabhi(incompatible)

Therapeutic Value:A number of aromatic
plant, animal & mineral sources attributed
with medicinal value.

Relevance
in
(Phana Marma)
Anatomical
applications
C ONCEPT ….
23

Specific pharmaceutical dosage forms to
retain the aroma of the drugs. (Arka, Hima,
Phanta etc.)

Numerous pharmaceutical
applications

Special routes of administration of dosage
forms pertaining to aromatic properties

Personal, Social & Environmental Hygiene
and preventive health care
&
clinical
A PPLICATIONS OF A ROMA
T HERAPY IN AYURVEDA
24

Ayurvedic literatures mention the following
wide-ranging applications of Aroma in Health
Care System:





Preventive health
Environmental Health
Public health
Pharmaceuticals
Therapeutics
A PPLICATIONS IN
P REVENTIVE H EALTH
25

Utility of garlands enriched with aromatic flowers
as a part of daily regime (Ch. Su. 5/96)

Inhaling flavors/fumes of aromatic medicinal
plants as a daily regime

Prescribed to stay in gardens having aromatic
flowers in summer seasons as a part of seasonal
regime

Fumigation
of
plants/products

Avoidance of exposure to excessive/improper
smells/flavors
clothing
with
aromatic
A PPLICATIONS IN
E NVIRONMENTAL & P UBLIC
H EALTH
26

Purification of water with aromatic
herbs

Fumigating the environment with
aromatic plants/products to prevent
epidemics/infectious diseases

Sterilizing the labour rooms, Pediatric
wards & OTs with antimicrobial aromatic
plants (Dashang Dhoopa)
A PPLICATIONS IN
P HARMACEUTICS
27

Evolution of specialized dosage forms for aromatic
herbs to retain their medicinal properties (Arka
etc.)

Fumigating
the
containers
with
aromatic
plants/products to prevent contamination &
infestations

Sterilizing the Drug store rooms, with Antimicrobial aromatic plants

Determining
the
pharmaceutical
specifications/end-points
of
manufacturing
processes of various dosage forms (Avaleha &
medicated oil/ghee etc)
A PPLICATIONS IN
P HARMACEUTICS
28

Addition of aromatic excipients/Treatment of
distillates of aromatic medicinal herbs
according to targeted indications (Arka)
- For Vata Disorders : Guggulu
- For Pitta Disorders : Chandana
- For Kapha Disorders : Jatamamsi

Use of aromatic excipients for patients’
compliance/acceptability

Treating the oils with aromatic plants/products
before utilizing them for manufacture
(taila and ghrita murchana)
A PPLICATIONS IN
T HERAPEUTICS
29
Nardostachys
jatamansi

Fumigation for wound-healing

Fumigation to prevent & manage
infectious & contagious diseases

Induction of emesis (Madanaphala-Lotus)

Aphrodisiac agents
A PPLICATIONS IN
T HERAPEUTICS
30

Nasal Administration of certain medicaments

Management of headache

Management of psychotic disorders to
restore the consciousness
e.g. Restoring consciousness of Lakshman is an
example of application of aromatic nasal
medicaments as narrated in Ramayana.
31
S OME AYURVEDIC A ROMATIC
M EDICINAL P LANTS
32
S OME
A ROMATIC
M EDICINAL P LANTS
AYURVEDIC
Aromatic Plant
Therapeutic
Indication
Karpoora (Cinnamomum
Ophthalmic Use , Obesity
Chandana (Santalum album)
Cardiac tonic, Cosmetic
camphora)
Kasturi(Moschus moschiferus) Eye, Perfumes
Aguru (Aquaria agalocha)
Eye and Ear Diseases
Kunkuma (Crocus sativus)
Hiccough, headache, Wound
healing, Cosmetic purposes
Jatiphala (Mysterica fragrans)
Throat problems, Antiinfective, cough, cold
S OME
33
A ROMATIC
M EDICINAL P LANTS
AYURVEDIC
Aromatic Plant
Therapeutic
Indication
Jatipatri (Mysterica fragrans)
Anti-toxic, Anti-infective
Lavanga (Syzigium aromaticum)
Eye diseases, Cardiac tonic
Ela (Elatorum cardamomum)
Anti-toxic, Respiratory disorders,
cardiac & urinary disorders
Tamalapatra (Cinnamonum
Anti-toxic, Respiratory disorders,
cardiac & urinary disorders
Twak(Syzigium zeylanicum)
Anti-toxic, Respiratory disorders,
cardiac & urinary disorders
Nagakeshara (Mesua feria)
Perfume, Skin diseases,
tamala)
S OME
34
A ROMATIC
M EDICINAL P LANTS
AYURVEDIC
Aromatic Plant
Therapeutic
Indication
Talisapatra(Abbies webiana)
Respiratory Diseases, Arthritis,
Jatamansi (Nordostachys
Blood purifier, Skin disorders
Usheera(Vetivaria zizanoides)
Skin diseases, Wound healing,
Urinary problems,
Guggulu(Commiphora mukul)
Wound healing, Obesity,
Arthritis, Skin diseases
Shathi (Curcuma zedoria)
Skin diseases, Blood purifier
Tagara(Valleriana wallichi)
Anti-infective, Anti-toxic, eye
diseases
jatamamsi)
S OME
35
A ROMATIC
M EDICINAL P LANTS
AYURVEDIC
Aromatic Plant
Therapeutic
Indication
Padma (Nulimbo nucifera)
Blood Purifier, Anti-toxic,
skin diseases
Jati (Jasminum humile)
Wound healing, Dental
problems, Blood purifier
Champaka (Michelia
Urinary disorders, blood
purifier
Tulasi(Ocimum sanctum)
Skin diseases, Urinary
disorders, Blood purifier,
Anti-infective
champa)
36
T HERAPEUTIC VALUES O F
E SSENTIAL OILS
T HERAPEUTIC VALUES O F
E SSENTIAL OILS
37

Arka prakasha, ancient book on Ayurveda
contributed by Ravana has elaborated
the importance of
- therapeutic utility of essential oils
-pharmaceutical SOPs for preparations of
distillates from aromatic plants
for
topical and internal use.
R OLE OF E SSENTIAL OILS IN
A ROMA THERAPY
38

Skin health care

Emotional care(Relieving stress)

Respiratory diseases

Muscular pain

Digestive disorders

Anti-inflammatory

Hormonal balance
R OLE OF A ROMA ……
39

Aroma therapy may acts as:

An add on or adjuvant therapy with
conventional medicine

Supports emotionally during main
therapy
C LASSIFICATION
OF A ROMATIC D RUGS
40
Aromatic Drugs may be Organic or Inorganic
Organic –Animal Origin

Musk

Ambar (Dried Intestinal material of whale)
Inorganic

Clay from specific places like Padmaj Panka.
(Mud surrounding Lotus).

Multani Mitti
41
H ERBAL & OTHER MATERIAL

Pandanus odorotissinus
– ketaki

Jasminum officinale
– Jati

Rosa centifolia
– Taruni

Cinnamomum
– Dalchini

Cummin Seeds
– Jiram

Alpinia galanga
– Kulinjan’
H ERBAL & OTHER MATERIAL
42
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cyperus Rotundus
Curcuma longa
Sussurea lappa
Nelumbo nucifera
Santalum Album
Citrus medica
Aqualaria agollocha
Crocus sativus
– Nut grass
– Haldi
– kushtha
–Sacred lotus
– Sandlewood
– Matulunga
– Agaru
– Kesar
43
Curcuma longa
44
H ERBAL & OTHER MATERIAL
• Pterocarpus santalum
– Red Sandal
• Butea monosperma
– Palash
• Nymphaea stellata
– Nilkamal
• Zingiber officinale
- Dry ginger
• Cidrus Deodara
– Deodar
• Michelia chapaca
– Champa
45
H ERBAL & OTHER MATERIAL
•Vetivera zizanioidis
– Ushira
•Shorea robusta
- Sarjarasa (Ral)
•Piper longum
– Pippali
•Piper nigrum
– Maricha
•Madhuca indica
– Mahuva
•Cinnamonum tamala
- Tejpatra
46
H ERBAL & OTHER MATERIAL
•Mesua ferrea
– Nagkesar
•Callicarpa macrophylla
– Priyangu
•Psoralia corylifolia
– Bakuchi
•Feronia limonia
– Kapittha patra
•Nardostachys jatamansi
– Jatamansi
•Anethumsova
– Shatpushpa
•Ellettaria cardamonum
– Ela
•Parmelia perlata
– stone flowers
(clove)
47
Nardostachys jatamansi
Mesua ferrea
AYURVEDIC PREPARATIONS
CONTAINING A ROMATIC HERBS
48

Most of the above class drugs are described
in many diseases

But their main use is in

Respiratory

Cardiac

Aphrodisiac

Cosmetic &

Oral preparations
49
R ESPIRATORY A ROMATIC
P REPARATIONS
• Karpurasava
• Trijatakvati
• Tulsi tailam,
• Jivandhara inhalation
50
C ARDIAC A ROMATIC
P REPARATIONS
• Cinnamonum camphora
Preparations
• Kasturibhairav Rasa,
• Kasturibhushan rasa
• Brihat Drakshasava
• Vidari Ghritam
• Kesharadivati
• Chaturbhujrasa
A ROMATIC O RAL & D ENTAL
PREPARATIONS
51
M OUTH F RESHENER / PASTE /P OWDERS
•Krishnadi chuarnam
• Jatipatradi churnam
• Dantarogashani churnam
• Pathadhy churnam
• Beejpur yoga
• Mundyadi churnam
• Kushthadi yoga
• Sarivapatra churnam
FACIAL C OMPLEXION
E NHANCER
52
•Sharpunkhadi lepa
•Vatadi Lepa
•Jatiphal lepa
•Haritaladi Lepa
•Lodhradi lepa
•Yavadi Lepa
•Sarshapadi lepa
•Ankolabijadi Lepa
•Vatpatradi lepa
•Jatiphaldi Lepa
• Kunkumadi Lepa
•Chandanadi Lepa
•Aaranya tulsi Lepa
52
53
FACIAL C OMPLEXION
E NHANCER
54
55
56
H AIR C ARE A ROMATIC
P REPARATIONS
• Gokshuradi lepa
• Nilopalodyo lepa
• Bhringadilepa
• Mansyadi lepa
• Ayorajadi lepa
• Madhukadi lepa
• Marsdenia tenacissima
H AIR C ARE A ROMATIC
P REPARATIONS
• Marichadi lepa • Padmabijadi Yoga • Marichadi lepa
• Yashtyadi lepa • Eladilepa
• Karanjali tailam • Karvirlepa
• Ral tailam
• Karpuradilepa
• Vachadi tailam • Bhallatakadi lepa
• Madan tailam • Marichadi lepa
• Vajravallilepa
• Shunthyadi lepa
• Vajravalli lepa
• Shunthyadi lepa
• Manhashivadi lepa
• Maharastripadi lepa
58
A ROMATIC PREPARATIONS
IN S EXUAL DISORDERS
• Paninashak tailam
• Ashvagandhaditailam
• Rativallabhakhya tailam • Alambushadya tailam
• Brahad bringaraj tailam • Karisadya tailam
• Mahamasha tailam
• Ajaypal tailam
•Gadhikaran yoga
• Palashbij tailam
•Gadhikaran lepa
•Sthulikaran lepa
59
A ROMATIC PREPARATIONS –
M ETHODS AND FORMS
Bath
Add 5-6 drops of E.O. to almond base oil and
add to your bath water.
Hand & Foot bath
Add 2-3 drops of E.O. to 5 ml. Pure almond
oil/milk. Mix this with 200 ml. Warm water in a
bowel and soak your hand or feet for 15-20
minutes.
Massage
Select any E.O. as per the condition add 5 to 20
ml. of almond oil and use for massage, this is
beneficial for massage of scalp and face but for
other parts or whole body massage use ginger or
coconut oil mixed with E.O.
60
A ROMATIC PREPARATIONS –
M ETHODS AND FORMS
Massage
Select any E.O. as per the condition add 5 to 20 ml.
of almond oil and use for massage, this is beneficial
for massage of scalp and face but for other parts or
whole body massage use ginger or coconut oil
mixed with E.O.
Vaporisers
Add 6-10 drops of selected E.O. to warm water in oil
burner and light it, the generated vapors will give
desired effects.
61
A ROMATIC PREPARATIONS –
M ETHODS AND FORMS
Inhalations
Add 2-3 drops of E.O. to a bowl of boiling water, cover your head and
the bowl with towel, the vaporized steam will act through respiration.
Infusions
Used for delicate aromatic herbs, leaves, flowers etc. Preparing an
infusion is like making a cup of tea.
The boiled water poured over an herb or mixture of herbs,
it is covered to 10 to 15 minutes and then can be consuming.
Decoctions
This is used for tougher and more fibrous plant material. Instead of
steeping in hot water, the plant material is boiled for a longer time to
soften the hard woody material and release active constituents.
62
A ROMATIC PREPARATIONS –
M ETHODS AND FORMS
Tinctures
A tincture is an alcohol and water extract used when the
plants active chemicals are not very soluble in water. The
shelf-life of tinctures is more.
Macerations
Dried aromatic plant material is covered in cool water
and soaked overnight. The herb strained oil and the
liquid is taken.
Poultices and compresses
To relieve local pain or overcome poultices and
compresses are used.
63
M ATERIAL
Aromatic
Material
Tulsi
Bergamot
A ROMATIC
& T HERAPEUTIC U SES
Therapeutic Uses
Respiratory problems
Mental fatigue and poor memory
Useful in spastic muscle
Relives mental tension
it is very much useful it contains more them 300 chemical constituents
Acne, boils, cold sores, eczema, insect bites
psoriasis, insect repellent, scabies, wound,
ulcers, sore throat
Depression refreshing mind
Birch
Muscle and joint pain
Increase awareness in the sensory system
Clove
Useful in respiratory disorders
Toothaches
Improves oral hygiene
64
M ATERIAL
A ROMATIC
& T HERAPEUTIC U SES
Coriander
Anti-inflammatory
Mild sedative action
Cypress
Anti-inflammatory
Heals emotions
Urinary diseases
Davana
Skin smoother
Endocrine stimulator and improver
Hormonal balance
Anti-bacterial
Dill
Bronchitis
Hepato-protective
Supports pancreatic function
Eucalyptus
Health promoter
Bronchitis, cold
Oral hygiene
Euphoric
65
M ATERIAL
A ROMATIC
& T HERAPEUTIC U SES
Corupe front
Digestive disorders
Obesity
Relieves negativity
Helicrysum
Tissue regenerative
Analgesic
Skin care
Euphoric
Hyssop
Anti-inflammatory
Anti-viral
Mucolytic and expectorant
Anti-parasitic
Scat softening
Anti-bacterial
Jasmine
Skin care
Frigidity
Depression
Myalgia
Enhances optimism
Euphonic
M ATERIAL
66
Lavender
Fennel
A ROMATIC
& T HERAPEUTIC U SES
Burns, rash, psoriasis
Insomnia
PMS
Relieves PMS and menopausal symptoms
Feels well being
Detoxification
Fir
Arthritis
Bronchitis
Anti-infective
Frankincense
Used since time of Lord Christa
Helps in meditation and spiritual awareness
Galbanum
Anti-viral
Supports body strength
M ATERIAL
67
Ginger
Geranium
Lemon
Lemon
Grass
A ROMATIC
& T HERAPEUTIC U SES
Arthritis
Myalgia
Congestion
Bronchitis
Indigestion
Motion sickness
Nausea
Anti-inflammatory
Lymphatic oesema
Regenerate tissue and nerves
Skin care
Balancing hormones
Release negative memories
Digestive problems
Air purifier
Feels energetic
Digestive problems
Regenerate connective tissue
Creates awareness
68
M ATERIAL
Myrrh
Nutmeg
Orange
Patchouli
Pipper
A ROMATIC
& T HERAPEUTIC U SES
Skin care
Bronchitis
Oral hygiene
Digestive problems
Analgesic nausea anti-infective
Overcome frigidity and
Relieves nervous fatigue
Stomatitis
Dyspepsia
Cold
Emotional support
Anti-rinkle
Release anxiety
Aphrodisiac
Stimulates endocrine system
Mucolytic and expectorant
Arthritis
Increases cellular oxygenation
M ATERIAL
69
Peppermint
Rose
Sandalwood
Thyme
White Lotus
A ROMATIC
& T HERAPEUTIC U SES
Nausea, vomiting
Phyarangitis
Oral hygiene
Detoxicating
Brings body-mind balance
Anti-haemorrhagic
Prevention scarring
Bronchitis
Anti-urinkle
Creating sense of well-being
Similar to frankincense helps
in meditation.
Burning micturation
Removes negative thinking
Supports immune system
Overcome physical weakness
Digestive disorders
Spiritual and emotional support
Supports immune system
Anti-cancer
Euphoric
Pious feeling
M ATERIAL
70
Chemical
Compounds of
Essential Oils
A ROMATIC
& T HERAPEUTIC U SES
Therapeutic Properties
Aldehydes
Releasing, calming and sedative, Anti-inflammatory Anti-septic,
Anti-microbial
Phenols
Highly anti-septic and anti-microbial Stimulating immune system
Sesquiterpenol Mood balancing, Anti-inflammatory Immune system enhancer
Ketones
Esters
Alcohol
Monoterpenes
Azulene
Bisabolol
Mind relaxer, Mucolytic and expectorant supporting respiratory
system, Stimulates cell regeneration
Mind relaxer, Anti-spasmodic, Anti-fungal
Anti-bacterial, Anti-viral
Detoxifying, Diuretic, Anti-septic, Anti-viral, Anti-inflammatory
Analgesic, Anti-spasmodic, Immunity stimulator
Anti-histaminic, Highly anti-inflammatory, Promoting healing
Is the strongest sesquifterpene, Anti-bacterial, Anti-fungal, Antiinflammatory
M AJOR CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS FOUND IN
ESSENTIAL OILS AND THEIR THERAPEUTIC
PROPERTIES
71
Chemical Compounds
of Essential Oils
Aldehydes
Therapeutic Properties
Releasing, calming and sedative, Anti-inflammatory Antiseptic,
Anti-microbial
Phenols
Highly anti-septic and anti-microbial Stimulating immune
system
Sesquiterpenol
Mood balancing,
enhancer
Ketones
Mind relaxer, Mucolytic and expectorant supporting
respiratory system, Stimulates cell regeneration
Esters
Alcohol
Monoterpenes
Mind relaxer, Anti-spasmodic, Anti-fungal
Anti-bacterial, Anti-viral
Detoxifying, Diuretic, Anti-septic, Anti-viral, Antiinflammatory Analgesic, Anti-spasmodic, Immunity
stimulator
Azulene
Anti-histaminic,
healing
Anti-inflammatory
Highly
Immune
anti-inflammatory,
system
Promoting
M AJOR CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS FOUND IN
ESSENTIAL OILS AND THEIR THERAPEUTIC
PROPERTIES
72
Bisabolol
Is the strongest sesquifterpene, Anti-bacterial, Anti-fungal, Antiinflammatory
Flavonoids
This group of compound is thoroughly researched and found
Immunity enhancer, Anti-cancer, Preventing cardio-vascular
disorders, Improves circulation, Maintains healthy status
Farnesol
Highly anti-inflammatory, Anti-bacterial
Highly anti-viral
Farnesence
Highly anti-viral
Limonene
Highly anti-bacterial, Immunity enhancer
Terpene
alcohols
Highly anti-viral
Terpene
hydrocarbons
Mucolytic and expectorant, Immunity enhancer
Thujone
73
S AFETY INFORMATION PERTAINING TO
E SSENTIAL O ILS
• Essential oils are powerful
• Highly concentrated oils can be harmful if
misused.
• In general not to use undiluted essential oils
on skin.
• Some E.O. can cause adverse reactions,
better to do a skin patch test prior to use
for the first time.
• Place a drop of the diluted E.O. on the
inside of elbow, apply and bandage and wait
for 24 hours to observe any reaction.
A DVERSE
74

REACTIONS
Irritation-rashes, mild itching, burning.
Vanishes if oil is discontinued

Sensitization: More serious then irritation can
cause charges into immune by stem. If used
body repeatedly then the body shows
sensitization in the form of rashes, allergic
reaction, itching etc.

Photo sensitization – Photo toxicity
A DVERSE
75
•
•
•
REACTIONS
E.O. causes a reaction to ultraviolet light. Reaction
may be in the form of brown blotches to burning of
the skin.
The condition may persists for a longer period and
may reoccur if exposed to ultraviolet light again.
In pregnant condition Birch and winter green E.O.
should
be
avoided
as
they
are
readily
absorbed by the skin causing irritation.
In epileptic patients the strong odour E.O. should be
avoided as they may initiate an epileptic attack.
 eg.Camphor, Fennel, Rosmary etc.
•
SOME OF THE E.O. SHOULD BE
USED CAUTIOUSLY
76
E.O. causing Sensitization
•Balasm
•Benzoin resinod and oil
•Cinnamon bark oil
•Inula graveolens
•Rue oil
•Verbena
E.O. causing
photo sensitization
•Rue oil
•Bergamot oil
E.O. with toxic action:
•Wosmseed
(chenopodium)
•Tausy oil
E.O. with carcinoglenic
action:
•Calamus
•Sassafoas
77
78
79
80
81
82
H OW A ROMA
83
WORKS :
AYURVEDIC
AND CONTEMPORARY
•
UNDERSTANDING
• Affects body’s physiological system like digestive,
respiratory etc. directly or indirectly peppermint,
ginger, sandalwood etc.
•
On skin – vasodilatation – producing warming
effect.
• Through olfactory route effects brain, sending
electrica messages directly into the limbic system
resulting impacts on memory, learning,
emotions, thinking and feeling etc. most of the
scents calm the nervous system, uplift spirits,
creates euphoria or sedation etc.
H OW A ROMA
84
WORKS

Mainly Aroma works through the sense of
olfaction

Olfactory sense is highly developed in some
mammals like dog, rabbits, etc. called Macrosomative

but in man it is not well developed called
micro-somative.

The sense of smell contributes greatly to the
joy of life.
85
N ASAL
ROUTE
……..
M ARMAS – ITS R OLE
86
PHANA MARMA
SRINGATAKA MARMA
87
T HE LIMBIC AREA IS RESPONSIBLE FOR
EMOTIONS , PLEASURE , MEMORY, HORMONAL
BALANCE , FEAR , ETC
Scope And Limitations of
Aroma Therapy
88

only Aroma therapy may not be a cure for all

it may not a complete therapy

It may be supplemented to other therapies

As add-on

Adjunct
to conventional therapies
89
Thank you

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