Water Search and Rescue

Report
Pasco Fire Department
Water Rescue Awareness
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Objectives:
• Recognize the need for water search and rescue based upon the complexity
of the incident
• Define and implement the assessment phase of the operation
• Identify the resources necessary to conduct safe and effective water
operations
• Implement site control and scene management
• Recognize the general hazards associated with water incidents and the
procedures necessary to mitigate these hazards within the general search and
rescue area
• Determine rescue or recovery profile(S)
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
NFPA 1670 Standard on Operations and
Training for Technical Search and Rescue
Incidents
9.2.3
Organizations operating at the awareness level at water search
and rescue incidents shall implement procedures for the
following:
A. Recognizing the need for water search and rescue
B. Implementing the assessment phase
C. Identifying the resources necessary to conduct safe and effective water
operations
D. Implementing site control and scene management
E. Recognizing general hazards associated with water incidents and the
procedures necessary to mitigate these hazards within the general
search and rescue area
F. Determining rescue versus body recovery
Water Rescue Awareness
WAC 296-305
296-305-05101
Pasco Fire Department
Written standard operating procedures shall be established consistent with the following levels:
•
Awareness Level – This level represents the minimum capability of organizations that provide
response to technical rescue incidents
296-305-05103
Training shall be provided to correspond to the operational level of the fire department. All fire
departments shall be trained to the awareness level; members which will be expected to perform at a
higher operational level shall be trained to that level.
295-3-5-05113 (5)
(a) Organizations choosing to operate at the awareness, operations or technician level for water
rescue incidents must meet the requirements of this section and the nonconflicting portions
of chapter 9 of the 2009 edition of NFPA 1670, Standard on Operations and Training for
Technical Rescue Incidents.
(ii)
All employees involved in water rescue shall be trained in water rescue techniques and wear
Coast Guard approved personal flotation devices, Type III, minimum.
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Pasco Fire Department
Standard Operating Guideline’s
30-6.7.1 –
Water Search and Rescue
This SOG shall apply to all Pasco Fire Department personnel responding
to and operating within a Water Rescue Incident or Training Environment.
30-6.7.2 –
Personal Floatation Devices and Personnel Safety
involving water incidents
This guideline is established to meet the intent and requirements of
water rescue as defined by WAC 296-305-051130(5)(a) and Chapter 9 of
the 2009 edition of NFPA 1670 Standard on Operations and Training for
Technical Search and Rescue Incidents
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Definitions
Awareness Level
Actions taken by the responders at the Awareness
Level are defensive in nature and should pose no risk, or a low
level of risk to the responder. This level represents the minimum
capability of organizations that provide response to technical
rescue incidents.
Operational Level
Actions taken at the Operational Level are of limited offensive
nature and generally at a low or moderate risk to the responder.
This level represents the capability of organizations to respond
to technical rescue incidents and to identify hazards, use
equipment, and apply limited techniques to support and
participate in technical rescue incidents.
Technical Level
Actions taken by the responders are offensive in nature and may
pose a high level of risk. This level represents the capability of
organizations to respond to technical rescue incidents, to
identify hazards, use equipment, and apply advanced techniques
specified to coordinate, perform, and supervise technical rescue
incidents.
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Water Rescue Size Up
• Scope, Magnitude, and nature
of the incident (complexity)
• Location and number of victims
• Risk/Benefit Analysis
• Separation, isolation, security,
and interviewing of witnesses
• Hazards – disrupted or exposed
utilities, standing or flowing
water, mechanical hazards,
hazmat, explosives
• Access to the scene
• Environmental Factors
• Resource assessment
• Rescue/Recovery
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Water Rescue Incident Complexity
Operations Level – is determined by
1. The method of victim entrapment
2. Operations are conducted only from
the shore
-or3. Are conducted from any watercraft
used by the organization
Technician Level – is determined by
1. Any water rescue in which technical
rope skills are needed
2. Operations in which the rescuer must
enter the water
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Surface Water
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Incident Causes……….Most Likely
• Changes in Weather
• Overconfidence
• No Personal Floatation
Device(s)
• Cramps
• Submerged Debris
• Collision of watercraft
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Swift Water
Water that is moving
at a rate greater than
one knot [1.85 km/hr
(1.15 mph)] – NFPA 1670
3.3.160
• Some Parts of the Yakima River
• Columbia and Snake Rivers
• Some Irrigation Canals
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Water Hazards
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Hydraulics
Water Rescue Awareness
Eddy
Pasco Fire Department
An eddy is the swirling of a fluid and the reverse current created when the
fluid flows past an obstacle.
Eddy
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Outwash/Backwash
Outwash
Boil
Line Backwash
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Current
Slower moving water tends to be at
the outside of the channel and on
the downstream side of the bend.
Slower moving water tends to be
at the bottom water layer of the
channel.
Water Rescue Awareness
Water Temperature
Pasco Fire Department
• The Body cannot maintain its temperature in water that is less
than 92 degrees F.
• Heat loss occurs 25 times faster in water than in air
• Immersion often leads to hypothermia
Water Rescue Awareness
Strainers
Pasco Fire Department
• Partial Obstructions that filter water
• Downed trees, gratings, mesh
• Creates unequal force across itself
• People become pinned by the waters
force
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Low Head Dams
Low Head Dams are control structures used on channels. They partially block
the waterway and “back up” the water behind them. They are self-regulating
and allow water to just spill over the top as levels increase.
Dangers
• Strong current just beyond the
downstream face of the dam
• Water flow is recirculating
(which drops down sharply
down the face of the dam, rises,
then returns to the face of the
dam as a backwash – and
quickly drops down again.
• PFD’s will not provide sufficient
flotation to prevent the user
from being drawn under
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Obstructions
An up stream V
pattern flow usually
indicates the
presence of an
obstruction or
submerged hazard.
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Undercuts
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Underwater Hazards
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Contamination
Water Rescue Awareness
Turbidity
Pasco Fire Department
Turbidity is a measure of the degree to which the water loses its
transparency due to the presence of suspended particulates.
Causes of Turbidity –
• Phytoplankton
• Sediments from soil or bank erosion
• Resuspended sediment from the
bottom of the channel
• Waste discharge
• Algae growth
• Urban Runoff
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Identify Last Seen Victim Location
If the victim
cannot be seen on
the surface of the
water, we need to
identify a Last
Seen Point (LSP) to
assist Dive Rescue
Technicians.
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Identify Last Seen Victim Location
Identify the number of
witnesses and victims.
Separate the witnesses
and interview them from
the spot that they last
saw the victim.
Attempt to “Triangulate”
the location. This will be
the initial search area.
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Basic Rescue Techniques
• REACH
• Outreached arm, leg or other tool
• Yell clear, simple instructions to the
victim
• Ensure that you have firm footing
• Do not enter the water any deeper than
knee-depth
• Remember that the victim is under
duress and may pull the rescuer into the
water
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
• THROW
• This type of rescue employs
throw rope bags, life rings,
and floats.
• This type of rescue is only
effective if the subject is
cooperative.
• Give clear and simple
commands to the subject.
• Remember that the victim is
under duress and may pull
the rescuer into the water.
Water Rescue Awareness
Rescue Communications
Pasco Fire Department
Whistle Commands
1 Blast = Stop and Look at me
2 Blasts = Begin the action that we agreed upon or is indicated
3 Blasts = I need help
Arm Signals
One arm raised = need help or pay attention
One hand on top of head = I am OK
Rope Signals
1 tug
2 tugs
3 tugs
4 tugs
OK
Advance
Take up slack
Help
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Rescue vs. Recovery
Factors to consider:
•
•
•
•
Time Submerged
Age
Physical Condition
Known/Suspected
Trauma
• Water Temperature
• Estimated Time for
Rescue/Removal
Water Rescue Awareness
Command and Control
Pasco Fire Department
• Arrival, Size Up, and Initiate/Establish Command
•
•
•
Recognize that this incident may extend beyond the initial operational period
An IAP may need to be developed
Determine Incident Complexity
• Operational – can the rescue be affected from the shore? If not you are in a technical
rescue situation. Call for the resources.
• Technical – Prepare to support Dive Operations (Secure Boat Launch, Have EMS supplies
readily available, prepare for decontamination)
• Identify and Secure General Hazards
•
•
•
•
Electrical Utilities
Gas, propane, fuel oil, other alternative energy sources
Water Size Up (Temperature, hazards)
Communications
• Identify and Secure Personal Hazards
•
•
Trips, slips, falls, etc.
PFD’s
• Identify Hazards that are Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health
•
Swift water situations with currents exceeding those in which a person or watercraft can safely
operate
• Secure the general area
•
Controlling/limiting access to the area by unnecessary personnel
• Locate, Identify. Secure and Interview Witnesses
•
Identify the LSP (Last Seen Point)
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department
Uh Oh
Water Rescue Awareness
Pasco Fire Department

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