Digitization of Special Materials: the Rizal Library

Digitization of
Special Materials:
the Rizal Library
E-Publishing Trends and Issues.
Ateneo de Manila University, May 1011, 2002
Lourdes T. David
Director, Rizal Library
The Rizal Library
 Provides information support to the Loyola
Schools of the Ateneo de Manila University
School of Humanities
School of Science and Technology
School of Social Sciences
School of Management and Information
The collection
 Maintains a collection of print and non-
print materials that are relevant to the
curricular offerings of the four Loyola
Schools in coordination with the
Rizal Library special collections
 Pardo de Tavera and other collections
 American Historical Collection (1898-1946)
 Ateneo Library of Women’s Writings
 Rare Filipiniana in print
 Filipiniana on microform
The Pardo de Tavera and other
 Domingo Abella
 Amado Hernandez
 Estanislao B. Alinea
 Manuel Lim
 Reynaldo Alejandro
 Narciso Rausa
 Gabriel Bernardo
 Inigo E. Regalado
 Leonard & Linda Casper
 Antonio Rivera
 Hermenegildo Cruz
 Norberto Romualdez Jr.
 Gabriel Daza
 Arturo B. Rotor
 Sixto dela Costa
 Rare Filipiniana Books
 Ramon Fernandez
 Manila Times
 Frank Golay
 Mr. & Ms. Photo Morgue
 Leon Ma. Guerrero
The American Historical
Collection (1898-1946)
 According to the Library of Congress, the
collection is unique and priceless. Its
holdings comprise 12,000 volumes of
books and periodicals, plus papers,
reports, manuscripts, and documents
 16,000 photographs, paintings and
drawings, microfilms and fiches, films,
audio tapes and other miscellaneous items
(Medals, flags, coins, etc.)
The ALIWW collections
 The principal mission of Ateneo Library of Women’s
Writings (ALIWW) is the collection of writings by and
about Filipino women in literature and the arts, for the
purpose of promoting their circulation among
contemporary readers, as well as preserving these for
 The collections: Paz Marquez Benitez, Angela
Manalang Gloria , Lina Flor, Lina Espina Moore,
Leonor Orosa Goquinco, Encarnacion Alzona,
Maria Rosa Luna Henson “ Lola Rosa”, Malou
Leviste Jacob, Araceli Limcaco Dans
Other special collections
 Rare Filipiniana
 Filipiniana on microfilm
Other periodicals
What materials are we converting
to digital format?
 Newspapers on microfilm published in 2000-
 Photographs file (16,000 images) in the
American Historical Collection
 Theses and dissertations
 Other materials on microfilm
Why are we digitizing
these materials?
 To respond to user demand.
 To provide enhanced access to the collection.
 To provide another means of preserving the
 To enable the Rizal Library to easily share its
resources with other libraries.
 To save on distribution costs.
Our experience: the process
Project planning
Selection and preparation of the
Conversion (scanning)
1. Project planning
 Concerns
The technology
Start up funds
Cost recovery
 Feasibility study and market research
Technology concerns
 Scanning or digital imaging is currently the most cost-
effective means to create digital files whether from
print or film
 Digital imaging is also the only currently available
technology that can faithfully capture the information
content, page layout, text, graphics, state of the
material (evidence of use and of age), etc.
 The Rizal Library does not have the required film
scanner for the conversion of microfilm to digital
format. It has equipment for scanning print.
Technology concerns
 Continuing technological developments
Image formats
Compression schemes
Network transmission
Monitor and printer design
Computing capacity
Image processing capabilities, particularly for the
automatic extraction of metadata (OCR) and visual
searching (QBIC)
(Chapman, Stephen and Anne R.
Kenney. Digital Conversion of Research Library Materials: A Case for Full Informational
Capture. D-Lib Magazine, October 1996.)
Technology concerns
 Will the media last?
 Will the media's hardware (reading device) and its
controlling software remain available?
Does the compression technique involve risks?
Will the logical formatting of the data be clear to future
How are the new policy issues to be handled (copyright,
fair use, etc.)?
Is the process affordable?
Are libraries equipped to use the digital format?
Technology concerns
 Microfilm vs. Digital format
Microfilming continues to be the main approach to
preservation and will remain viable for years. Requires
expensive special equipment for access and a
controlled environment for maintenance of quality of
the medium. Very slow development in technology
ensures viability.
Digital technology requires less expensive equipment
for access. Developments lead to cost decreases
while raising concerns about the future of the medium.
Staff concerns
 The Rizal Library has the expertise but they are
not available to undertake the project because of
other responsibilities. Tasks that are needed for
the project are:
Do the conversion (scanning)
Monitor conversion project to ensure quality of the
image and the index
Oversee the development of the user interface
Feasibility study and market
 The PLMP conducted a feasibility study for the
digitization of the newspapers on microfilm.
Preference of users for digital copies
 Availability
of computers
 Enhanced access
 Manipulability of the digital copy
Availability of technology/bureaus for conversion
Cost recovery possible
Start up funds for conversion
 Newspapers on microfilm project--PLMP
 American Historical Collection photograph
file project—Grant from AHC Foundation
 Theses and dissertations—RL funds. Students
are required to submit digital copies of their
 Other—RL funds
2. Criteria for the selection of
 Intellectual content
 Research value of information (present and
long-term user demand)
 Quality of the original document
 Need to enhance access
 User demand
 Request of funding agency
3. Conversion/ indexing/
 In-house or outsource?
 Conclusion: Outsource
Newspapers on microform—Outsource everything but
convert in-house and use CIPPA index for access
AHC photograph file—Outsource but purchase
equipment and convert in-house
Request for proposal
 Prepare specifications
Quality—identify the smallest information element which
requires sufficient settings to capture all significant
information present in the source document
Manipulability—define the extent of manipulation desired for
the product.
Access—define the level of indexing needed to describe the
document as accurately and comprehensively as possible to
ensure retrieval
Preservation—ensure enduring copy
User interface—ensure friendliness
 Identify conversion bureaus, send out RFP,
request for demonstration
Selection of conversion bureau
 Agrees to work on-site and within allotted
 Meets specifications in RFP
 Agrees to customization after
 Affordable
 Reliable and credible company
 Produces reliable copies from the master
at low cost and in secure packaging.
Reasons for customization
 To meet user requirements
 Digital conversion requires not only curatorial but
also technical competency because there is need
to correlate:
subjective attributes of the source, and the
objective specifications that govern digital conversion
(e.g., resolution, bit depth, enhancements, and
(Chapman, Stephen and Anne R. Kenney. Digital
Conversion of Research Library Materials: A Case for Full Informational Capture. D-Lib
Magazine, October 1996.)
 Bureau should be able to do it right the first time
at the cost agreed upon.
Reason for on-site conversion
The goal of digitization includes preservation
reformatting to meet anticipated needs. On-site
conversion ensures:
 Preservation of the original microform or print
 Quality control in terms of the standard of the output
(made possible by periodic inspection and monitoring
by library staff) and the environment where the system
is operating
 Proper documentation
 Brown University Library. Selection criteria for digitization
 Chapman, Stephen and Anne R. Kenney. Digital Conversion
of Research Library Materials: A Case for Full Informational
Capture. D-Lib Magazine, October 1996. (Slide 24)
 Library of Congress. Guidelines for Electronic Preservation of
Visual Materials (http://www.loc.gov)
 Technical Recommendations for Digital Imaging Projects
Prepared by the Image Quality Working Group of
ArchivesCom, a joint Libraries/AcIS committee.
Product demo
 Newspapers on CD-ROM Jan-June
The product:
Newspapers on CD-ROM
 Software: DGX Ateneo V.1
 Technical Features:
Database Driven: MDB
Format Image Resolution: 200 DPI
Compression Format: TIFF
Storage: CD or hard disk
System Requirements: Win9x, 2000, XP, NT 32 MB
RAM, at least 20 MB Disk space
Thank you
Lourdes T. David
Rizal Library
Ateneo de Manila University
[email protected]
Tel: 426-6001 loc. 5800

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