Deborah J. Jones PhD, MSN, RN June M. Sadowsky, DDS, MPH Donna Warren-Morris, RDH, Med Bela Patel, MD, DABSM, FCCP Outcomes Define components of oral health in mechanically ventilated adults Recognize complications from poor oral health Promote good oral health through the delivery of appropriate oral hygiene Describe the state of the science regarding oral care practices in mechanically ventilated adults Assess and deliver evidence-based oral care Recognize triggers to consult other healthcare providers Oral and Systemic Health Link Diabetes Cardiovascular disease Respiratory disease Stroke Premature birth Mechanically Ventilated Patients Characteristics: Vulnerable to systemic infections due to disruption in host defenses like mucociliary clearance, cytokine production and salivary volume Dependent on healthcare providers to provide oral care Have the potential for bacterial load to be increased due to lack of consistent oral care regimen Develop oropharyngeal colonization with pathogenic organisms within the first 24 hours of intubation Reasons for Lack of Oral Care Regimen Nurses receive little to no formal training Lack of priority, perceived need or time Patient’s inability to participate or request Medical conditions and equipment interfere Fear of endotracheal tube dislodgement Lack of published randomized controlled trials examining the best practices for oral care in critically ill patients Complications of Poor Oral Hygiene Oropharyngeal colonization linked to the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) Remains the most deadly hospital acquired infection in intensive care units (8-15% estimated mortality rate) Increased dental plaque accumulation and oral inflammation Disruption of tissue integrity Further complication of pre-existing oral conditions Rationale for Good Oral Hygiene Oral care protocols (usually included in VAP bundles) show decrease in incidence of VAP Oral care reflects preventive measures aimed at reducing pathogenic organisms, and promoting holistic patient care Patient comfort Prevention of halitosis Although…to date No gold standard oral care protocol with optimal frequency or products have been well established; several organizations have published recommendations to guide oral care of the mechanically ventilated patient Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) Recommendation Daily oral care with 0.12% chlorhexidine • Develop a comprehensive oral care process that includes the use of 0.12% chlorhexidine oral rinse • Schedule chlorhexidine as a medication, which then provides a reminder for the RN and triggers oral care process delivery Educate the RN staff about the rationale supporting good oral hygiene and its potential benefit in reducing ventilator-associated pneumonia American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) Recommendation Develop and implement a comprehensive oral hygiene program for patients in critical care and acute care settings who are at high risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) Brush teeth, gums and tongue at least twice a day using a soft pediatric or adult toothbrush Provide oral moisturizing to oral mucosa and lips every 2 to 4 hours Use an oral chlorhexidine gluconate (0.12%) rinse twice a day during the perioperative period for adult patients who undergo cardiac surgery Routine use of oral chlorhexidine gluconate (0.12%) in other populations is not recommended at this time Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) Recommendation Perform regular oral care with an antiseptic solution The optimal frequency for oral care is unresolved Oral Care Protocol for Intubated Patients Follow standard precautions and infection prevention procedures including asepsis, gloves, a mask, and eye protection (as needed) Obtain all necessary equipment prior to beginning oral care Explain to the patient what you are planning to do so they are not startled Note the position and placement of the endotracheal tube prior to oral care Assessment and Oral Cancer Screening Assess all areas of the mouth for any signs of trauma, inflammation, bleeding, ulcerations or suppuration Redness, swelling, exudate, tenderness and ulcerations are signs of infections that should be further assessed to rule out oral cancer. Assessment Slight bleeding of the gums is common if homecare has been deficient. With good oral hygiene, bleeding will cease in a few days of adequate care Xerostomia (dry mouth) Common in intubated patients Assessment Assessment of the oral cavity should include all surfaces of the mouth, carefully inspecting for abnormalities. When inspecting the intubated patient be careful to observe the position and placement of the endotracheal tube. Suctioning Prior to beginning the oral care protocol and immediately following oral care it is important to suction the patients mouth and the subglottic space in order to prevent aspiration of pooled secretions Suctioning should be repeated as needed during oral care Tooth Brushing The teeth and mouth should be cleaned at least twice a day Use a soft bristle toothbrush with a small head (pediatric size) for better access A smear of a sodium fluoride toothpaste Do not use a sodium monofluorophosphate fluoride if chlorhexidine gluconate is to be used since the two are not compatible Tooth Brushing Technique Use a systematic sequence Angle the bristles toward the gumline and brush with gentle pressure in small circular strokes on each tooth. The bristles of the toothbrush will extend underneath the gumline if adapted correctly Facial surfaces of all maxillary teeth, then linguals, then repeat on the mandibular teeth. Brush the occlusal or biting/chewing surfaces last with a scrub stroke Brush the tongue with long outward sweeping strokes Gently move the tube from side to side as necessary for access Tooth Brushing Teeth should be brushed in a circular motion. Teeth of mechanically ventilated adults should be brushed using the same technique with the exception of the following modifications: observe the placement of the endotracheal tube by the markings on the tube before and during oral care, suction the oral cavity frequently and suction the subglottic space following oral care to prevent aspiration . A mouth prop, tongue blade or bite block may be used to hold the mouth open for unresponsive patients Antiseptic/microbial application Antimicrobial Chlorhexidine gluconate (0.12%) Recommended with little side effects (tooth staining) Swab the endotracheal tube as well to prevent bacterial biofilm formation Swab twice a day with no rinsing afterward for a minimum of 30 minutes Moisturizing the Mouth Every two hours, moisturize the lips, mucosa, tongue and corners of the mouth with a water-based moisturizer Petroleum based products should be avoided as they can dry tissues and are harmful if aspirated Detrimental Practices. Foam Swabs do not remove plaque bacteria as well as a toothbrush and should not be substituted Hydrogen peroxide is acidic and can burn soft tissues if not diluted enough and may also cause black hairy tongue Lemon glycerin swabs are very acidic and can cause soft tissue burns and decalcify the teeth Petroleum jelly dries out oral tissues and can also degrade latex gloves Special Considerations Neuroscience patients Intracranial pressure Edentulous patients Brush the gums gently Facial trauma patients Modify tooth brushing Role of Healthcare Providers Nurses Patient and other healthcare provider education Daily assessment of oral cavity Delivery and documentation of oral care Consultation as needed Respiratory Therapists Further assessment around endotracheal tube holders Maintenance of closed ventilation circuit Role of Healthcare Providers Physicians/Nurse Practitioners/Physician Assistants Oral assessments Routine/standard order of antimicrobial rinse Collaboration with dental professionals Patient education Dental Hygienists/Dentists Referral follow-up Collaboration with critical care clinicians References Berra L, Sampson J, Wiener-Kronish J. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Acute lung injury or ventilator-associated pneumonia? Minerva Anestesiol. 2010;76(10):824-832. Nseir S, Di Pompeo C, Pronnier P, et al. Nosocomial tracheobronchitis in mechanically ventilated patients: Incidence, aetiology and outcome. Eur Respir J. 2002;20(6):1483-1489. Craven DE, Driks MR. Nosocomial pneumonia in the intubated patient. Semin Respir Infect. 1987;2(1):20-33. Torres A, El-Ebiary M, Gonzalez J, et al. Gastric and pharyngeal flora in nosocomial pneumonia acquired during mechanical ventilation. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993;148(2):352-357. Greene R, Thompson S, Jantsch HS, et al. Detection of pooled secretions above endotracheal-tube cuffs: Value of plain radiographs in sheep cadavers and patients. Am J Roentgenol. 1994;163(6):1333-1337. References Jones DJ, Munro CL, Grap MJ. Natural history of dental plaque accumulation in mechanically ventilated adults: A descriptive correlational study. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2011;27(6):299-304. doi: 10.1016/j.iccn.2011.08.005. Munro CL, Grap MJ, Jones DJ, McClish DK, Sessler CN. Chlorhexidine, toothbrushing, and preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill adults. American Journal of Critical Care. 2009;18(5):428-437. Accessed 25 February 2011. Fourrier F, Duvivier B, Boutigny H, Roussel-Delvallez M, Chopin C. Colonization of dental plaque: A source of nosocomial infections in intensive care unit patients. Crit Care Med. 1998;26(2):301-308. Barkvoll P, Rölla G, Bellagamba S. Interaction between chlorhexidine digluconate and sodium monofluorophosphate in vitro. Scand J Dent Res. 1988 Feb;96(1):30-3. Abidia RF. Oral Care in the Intensive Care Unit: A Review. J Contemp Dent Pract 2007 January;(8)1:076-082. http://vilarmoreiranunes.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/abidia.pdf References MDCT Evaluation of Foreign Bodies and Liquid Aspiration Pneumonia in Adults. http://www.ajronline.org/content/190/4/907.full.pdf+html Garrouste-Orgeas M, Chevret S, Arlet G, et al. Oropharyngeal or gastric colonization and nosocomial pneumonia in adult intensive care unit patients. A prospective study based on genomic DNA analysis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997;156(5):1647-1655. Chastre J. Ventilator-associated pneumonia: What is new? Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2006;7 Suppl 2:S81-5. doi: 10.1089/sur.2006.7.s2-81. Albertos R, Caralt B, Rello J. Ventilator-associated pneumonia management in critical illness. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2011;27(2):160166. doi: 10.1097/MOG.0b013e32834373b1. Ashraf M, Ostrosky-Zeichner L. Ventilator-associated pneumonia: A review. Hosp Pract (Minneap). 2012;40(1):93-105. doi: 10.3810/hp.2012.02.950 References Martin B. AACN practice alert: Oral care for patients at risk for ventilatorassociated pneumonia. http://www.aacn.org/WD/Practice/Docs/PracticeAlerts/oral%20care%20042010%20final.pdf. Updated 2010. Chan EY, Ruest A, Meade MO, Cook DJ. Oral decontamination for prevention of pneumonia in mechanically ventilated adults: Systematic review and metaanalysis. Br Med J. 2007;334(7599):889-893. Accessed 9 March 2011. Institute for Healthcare Improvement. http://www.ihi.org/IHI/Topics/CriticalCare/IntensiveCare/Changes/Individual Changes/DailyOralCarewithChlorhexidine.htm. Updated Implement the ventilator bundle: Daily oral care with Chlorhexidine.