New Trends in Mobile Computing: Medical Applications and

Report
The Second Session of the Committee on Development
Information, Science and Technology
CODIST-II
2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
New Trends in Mobile Computing:
Medical Applications and Localization
Solomon Atnafu, PhD
Department of Computer Science,
Addis Ababa University
[email protected]
The Second Session of the Committee on Development
Information, Science and Technology
CODIST-II
2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Outline
1. Overview
2. Trends in Mobile Applications
3. Case Mobile Applications
–
–
mHealth Applications,
Localization Examples
4. Recommendations
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The Second Session of the Committee on Development
Information, Science and Technology
CODIST-II
2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
1. Overview
• Mobile computing:
– A computing facility with a feature of mobility. A computer
is expected to be transported during normal usage.
• Three aspects of Mobile Computing:
– mobile communication,
– mobile hardware, and
– mobile software.
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mobile hardware
1973
2009/10
Development
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Wireless Communication Technology Developments
From the age of telegraph to ad-hoc networks
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The Second Session of the Committee on Development
Information, Science and Technology
CODIST-II
2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
2. Trends in Mobile Applications
More than 30
years
Dr. Martin Cooper,
1973; first cell
phone
(Take-Along
Telephones)
Mobile phone microscopy (CellScope):
- a standard camera-enabled mobile phone
microscope
(University of California, Berkeley, 2008)
- magnification of up to 50X,
- estimated resolution of 1.2 µm
http://www.cellular.co.za/cellphone_inve
ntor.htm
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Mobile Phone Based Applications:
RapidSMS : availing almost Real-time data to decision makers
from any corner of a country via SMS based Application
(introduced by UNICEF).
Server at central location
How the system
Works:
Formatted SMS:
TEST 170 150 120 20 18 45 135
Data from the field
compiled and sent by SMS
Report is generated
at the server side
 Mobile phones for data collection and
delivery of information from remote sites:7
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Open Data Kit (ODK)
• By a group at the University of Washington supported by
Google;
• Mobile Internet Access, Web-based,
• Allows to capture, submit, store and report data as diverse as
text, video, audio, images, barcodes, and GPS readings.
– Kenya- HIV treatment program in a home-based testing and
counseling program,
– Brazil- forest tree inventory
– Uganda- customers data collection
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sana
Sana is a standard-focused open-source system that supports audio,
images, location-based data, text, and in the future, video for
telemedicine and other relevant applications.
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What is the Problem?
•
•
•
•
•
Efficiency,
Communication,
Mobility,
Coverage
Economical advantage
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The Second Session of the Committee on Development
Information, Science and Technology
CODIST-II
2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
3. Case Mobile Applications:
Department of Computer Science,
Addis Ababa University
1.
Epidemic and Communicable Disease Surveillance Data Reporting and
Medical Cases Communication System; by Solomon Atnafu, Andualem
Workneh, Yonan Getachew.
2.
Mobile Health and Demographic-Data Reporting and Communication
System: a mHealth system for the Case of the Butajira Rural Health
Program; by Solomon Atnafu, Andualem Workneh, Yonan Getachew.
3.
The “ሀለሐ” Virtual Ethiopic Keyboard for Smart Phones; by Andualem
Workneh, Yonan etachew, Solomon Atnafu,
4.
Perpetual Ethiopic Calendar, Organizer and Diary System for Android
Based Smart Phones; Zenebe Nigussie and Solomon Atnafu,
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Epidemic and Communicable Disease
Surveillance Data Reporting and Medical
Cases Communication System
Solomon Atnafu, Andualem Workneh, Yonan Getachew
emails: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
Addis Ababa University
November 10, 2010
M4D 2010, Kampala, Uganda
This project is partially supported by the United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa (UNECA) through the UNECA-Finland Cooperation for ICT Development in Africa.
 The Current Practice
• Existing Practice Analyzed
(Data Collected from the Public Health Emergency Management Center
of the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Resource Institute, FMoH).
– Data collection formats acquired (Case based Reporting
Format, Epidemic Disease Reporting Formats)
– Cases are reported using paper based formats;
– health extension workers  health center  Woreda
health office  Regional health bureau  FMoH.
– Currently, about twenty communicable diseases were
identified and are under close surveillance,
– Some of them need to be reported immediately, others on
weekly basis,
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Problems Identified
– Depending on the case reporting can be by telephone,
– But, there are places where there is no telephone access,
– Sending completed reports to the desired site is time taking,
– Disease cases may be reported after a long delay,
– Delayed reporting of cases is too costly and very sensitive,
– Manual data analysis is error prone and time consuming,
– Even though the report reaches on time, analysis may take time
since it requires data entry of all forms received,
– Entering the paper based data in to computer applications (ex.
Excel) is also error prone and a time consuming task,
– The need for efficient data collection and analysis is high!
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• Requirement Analysis Conducted, Actors Identified.
Report
Epidemic
Diseases Data
Register
User
Assistance
Report
Medical Cases
Remove
User
Get
Assistance
System Administrator
View
Report
Health Worker
View
Messages
Generate
Report
Give
Assistance
Get Report
Surveillance Focal
Person
Health Professional
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 Implementation
• Selection of the Development Environment
 The client device (the mobile phone device) selected:
– Android OS based phone,
 Criterion:
– Free and Open Source OS,
– Future trend of development and application,
– Localization capability,
– Availability of applications,
– Others: Handset layouts, Storage, Connectivity, Messaging, Web
browser, Java support, Media support, Development environment,
Market, support of manufacturers, etc.
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• Development of the Client System
The icon of the
application Installed
on the phone
The first Screen of the
Application
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List of functionalities of
the application on the
mobile phone
Case Reporting form
with save and send
options
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 The Server Side system
• Basic functionalities of the server side system:
– The type of message can be Medical case reporting or assistance
request, so it identifies the type of message accepted and store
appropriately.
– A number of messages are expected to be received at a time,
Therefore the system should be able to manage this.
– Provide a two way communication between the client (mobile phones
in the fields) and the server. This includes sending messages, receiving
messages and providing communication history where the sent and
received messages can be viewed.
– Keep track of the contact details of the users who communicate with
the system.
– Different users with different access levels will use the web
application, therefore manage the users of the system and provide
security.
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Server Side System Components:
• User Manager
– Logging in to the System
– Using the User Manager
• Creating New User/Contact
• Editing User/Contact
• Message Manager
– Sending SMS messages
– View Sent Messages
– Receiving SMS Messages
• Forms Manager
– Viewing & Editing Received Forms
• Report Generator
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Some screenshots of the server side Interfaces:
Received Form List
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Custom Report
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• Contributions:
– Instant delivery of reports,
– Rapid communication Between professionals and field workers,
– Zero data entry time,
– Zero or highly reduced error rate,
– Higher transparency and accountability,
– Medical assistant (Tele-consultation), build confidence on quality of
data, instant delivery of critical messages to field workers,
– Highly simplified and fast report generation,
– Opens the way for other similar applications.
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The “ሀለሐ” Virtual Ethiopic Keyboard
for Smart Phones
Andualem Workneh, Yonan Getachew,
Gedion TAMENE, Solomon Atnafu,
emails:, [email protected], [email protected],
[email protected] , [email protected]
Addis Ababa University
November 11, 2010
M4D 2010, Kampala, Uganda
This project is partially supported by UNECA
• The Ethiopic Character Set
– Amharic is the working language of the federal government
of Ethiopia (a country with a population of more than 80
million) and is spoken and written as a first or second
language in many parts of the country.
– Among the other languages that use Ethiopic script are
Tigrigna, Guragegna, Agewigna, and many other languages
in the southern region of Ethiopia.
– Tigrigna is a language for about nine million people
particularly in Tigrai region of Ethiopia and in Eretria.
• Virtual keyboards: For mobile computing devices - The
virtual keyboard fits on their small screen size, hence the best
choice in many situations.
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The Challenges –Keyboard design
• Keyboard Mapping and Input Methods (Many
Efforts since the 1980’s)
Standard Keyboard Mapping:
• Typewriter layout,
• Phonetic layout;
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Advantage:
•
As a result of many efforts Ethiopic is Unicode
supported.
•
Ethiopic Unicode (1200 – 137F)
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The mobile phone input method design
Ethiopic Key-pad for mobile phones
Standard Key-pad for mobile phones
Composing Template-based Text
By Shiferaw Abebe, Solomon Atnafu and Samuel Kinde,
Department of Computer Science, Addis Ababa University
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 Virtual Ethiopic Keyboard:
- System Layout Design
NonBasic Character selection component
Basic Character selection set component
Figure: Proposed Layout for the virtual Ethiopic keyboard
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 Implementation
The System Development Environment
• Android operating system based smart phones are selected.
• The basic reasons to choose Android platform are that:
– It uses Freetype, a free and open source bitmap and vector font engine,
which supports Unicode text layout and glyph rendering. Ethiopic
Unicode fonts, such as Microsoft's Nyala and GFZ's Geez Free Zemen,
can be used to render text using Freetype on the Android platform. Other
platforms such as the Palm OS lack the internationalization support
required to fully meet the needs of Ethiopic software development.
– It comes with immediate availability to mobile versions of Google search,
Google Maps, and Google Products that allow independent developers to
create their own array of applications at a much less restrictive cost.
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Virtual Ethiopic Keyboard System (VEK)
The Top Panel
The Main Panel
Figure : VEK on Android Emulator
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Figure: on the Android based HTC G1 smart phone
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Figure: (A)-The panel for Ethiopic and Amharic numerals and
Mathematical symbols; (B)- the Virtual QWERTY keyboard.
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 Contribution
• YES, WE CAN
– YES; Technology can and should embrace culture,
– a virtual keyboard layout is designed for more than 340
Ethiopic characters,
– multi-script text writing is supported, users can switch
between our VEK and the Virtual QWERTY keyboard.
– Any mobile application can be localized,
– Opens the way to include other smart phones, such as
Nokia and other mobile operating systems.
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Mobile Health- and Demographic-Data
Reporting and Communication System
for the Butajira Rural Health Project
By
Solomon Atnafu, Project Manager ([email protected])
Andualem Workneh, Developer
Yonan Getachew, Developer
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
March 2010
This project is partially supported by the United Nations Economic Commission for
Africa (UNECA) through the UNECA-Finland Cooperation for ICT Development in Africa.
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The BRHP aimed to:
• Assess the fertility, mortality, nuptiality and migration trends
and determinants;
• Analyze public health and health behavioral determinants of
mortality;
• Assess the coverage and utilization of health services in the
area in relation to health needs of the people;
• Build and strengthen research and training capacity; and
• Develop local capacity in the prevention and control of
disease.
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Current Practice: Reporting and Data Collection
•
Manual: data collected on paper based forms, compiling, analysis
and reporting
• What are the problems?
– Sending completed reports of the enumerators from Rural Kebeles to
to Woreda Health Posts, or to higher health offices and then to a
central project office is time taking,
– cases that need immediate interventions may be reported after a long
delay, while delayed reporting of cases could be too costly and very
sensitive,
– Even though the report reaches on time, analysis may take time since it
requires data entry of all the forms received,
– Entering the paper based data in to computer applications is also error
prone and time consuming task,
– As a result, an obvious question of efficiency is on the air;
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Requirement Analysis . . .
USE CASES DIAGRAM
 Analysis and Design conducted
Report
HD Data
Register
User
Assistance
Remov
e User
Get
Assistanc
e
Enumerators
View
Report
Give
Assistance
View
Report
Generate
Report
System
Administrator
Health
Professional
The Butajira Rural Health ProgramActor’s interaction and operations
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 Implementation
• The client side:
– An Android based smart Phone,
– With virtual Ethiopic keyboard and mobile virtual QWERTY
keyboard,
– Data can be collected in both Amharic and English
languages,
• The Server Side:
– A server with MySQL database,
– Reports can be generated in a required format,
– web based interface to allow medical professionals and
the system administrator have access to the system,
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Client Side:
Mobile Health- and Demographic-Data Reporting
and Communication System - Some screenshots
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Server Side System Components:
• User Manager
– Logging in to the System
– Using the User Manager
• Creating New User/Contact
• Editing User/Contact
• Message Manager
Screen shot of Birth Form List
– Sending SMS messages
– View Sent Messages
– Receiving SMS Messages
• Forms Manager
– Viewing & Editing Received Forms
• Report Generator
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Screen shot of Birth Report
39
• Contributions:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Instant delivery of reports,
Rapid communication Between professionals and field workers,
Almost Zero data entry time,
Zero or highly reduced error rate,
Higher transparency and accountability,
Medical assistant (Tele-consultation), build confidence on quality
of data, instant delivery of critical messages to field workers,
Highly simplified and fast report generation,
Enables faster decision making,
Amharic Virtual Ethiopic Keyboard for Android Phones,
Localization of the Android Phone,
Development of the Mobile Health- and Demographic-Data
Reporting and Communication System,
Opens the way for other similar applications.
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ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES
MASTER’S PROJECT DEFENCE
Perpetual Ethiopic and European Calendar
and Organizer System for an Android Based
Smart Phones.
By: Zenebe Nigussie
Advisor: Solomon Atnafu (PhD)
June 24, 2010
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The Ethiopian Calendar system
 Ethiopian Calendar system is based on solar system having
365 or 366 (during leap year) days per year.
 It has 13 months, 12 of them with 30 days each and one
month with 5 or 6 (leap year) days per year.
 Religious Holidays
• Christian Holidays
• Muslim Holidays
 National Holiday (Non-Religious)
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 Analysis and Design
• For the development of the system different requirements are
identified.
• The functional requirements that identified are represented in
the use case shown next slide.
• The architecture of the system that meets the requirements of
the system is depicted in the next slide.
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 Implementation
• In order to generate the perpetual Ethiopian with the
corresponding Gregorian calendar the algorithm is developed
and implemented.
• To determine the date of the holidays, whose date appears at
different date from year to year, algorithm is developed and
implemented.
• Based on the Ethiopian calendar organizer/scheduler and
diary system is developed that support Amharic text.
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Select year
Select month
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Diary/schedule or plan
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
Contributions
The main contribution of this project is:
 Algorithm is generate that generate the Ethiopian calendar
 Algorithm is developed that convert Ethiopian date to European date
and compute Ethiopian holydays
 Architecture of the calendar, organizer and diary system.
 Developed perpetual Ethiopic and Gregorian calendar based on the
algorithms
 Designed and implemented organizer/scheduler and diary system for
Android phone that support Ethiopic script
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The Second Session of the Committee on Development
Information, Science and Technology
CODIST-II
2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
4. Recommendations
• Create awareness (decision makers, medical
personnel, practitioners, students, women, in
Schools, etc.),
• Select the appropriate mobile devices for your
Application (Cost/Benefit, future trends, etc.)
• Adopt to Local needs (in African context, localization)
• Exploit the potential of mobile computing,
• Adopt applications to reality of being mobile,
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The Second Session of the Committee on Development
Information, Science and Technology
CODIST-II
2-5 May 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
አመሰግናለሁ 
Thank You 
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