Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children

Report
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
A Strength-based Approach to
Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
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Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 1
California Social Work Education Center
Research and Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
A Strengths-based Approach to
Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
Presented By:
Valerie B. Shapiro, Berkeley Social Welfare
Heidi Sims, SCAN (Stop Child Abuse & Neglect)
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 3
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Additional Acknowledgements
• Devereux Center for Resilient Children (DCRC): Linda Likins,
Jennifer Fleming, Karen Cairone, Deb Alleyne, & Debi Mahler.
• Stop Child Abuse & Neglect (SCAN), Inc.: Rachel Tobin-Smith,
Rob Pettibone, Bobbie Golani, Sarah McClure, & a generous
Anonymous Donor.
• The staff, parents, and children at SCAN Inc. in Fort Wayne,
Indiana and Ireland Home-Based Services in Evansville, Indiana
who were involved in this project.
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 4
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Prevalence
• Nearly three and a half million allegations of child abuse,
involving over six million children, are made in the
United States annually (US DHHS, 2012)
• An average of four children per day die in the US due to
abuse and neglect, which is estimated to be the worst
fatality record of any wealthy nation (Gilbert et al., 2009)
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 5
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Consequences
• Increased likelihood of mental, emotional, and behavioral
problems, developmental delays, academic difficulties,
and criminal justice system involvement
• The economic consequences that result from child abuse
and neglect cost American taxpayers $124 billion
annually (Fang, Brown, Florence & Mercy, 2012)
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 6
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Dual System Aims
• US child protection system was initially designed to
manage risk by identifying and removing threats to
physical and emotional safety
• Recent emphasis on family preservation has complicated
and expanded the system aims to include the broader goal
of child welfare
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 7
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Strength-Based Services
(Rapp, Saleebey, & Sullivan, 2005)
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goal-oriented
systematically assess strengths
view the environment as an important resource
create plans that leverage family / environmental strength
foster hope
provide meaningful choices in the provision of services
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 8
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
The failure to articulate specific practice
models creates the gap between child
welfare workers’ familiarity with the
concepts of strengths-based practice and
the provision of strengths-based services
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 9
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Supervised Visitation
• A safe environment for parenting time
• An opportunity to document court order compliance and
parent / child interactions to inform reunification
decisions
• Maintaining / growing child–caregiver relationships, and
pursuing / recognizing caregiver skill acquisition
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 10
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Research Indicates
• The frequency of maternal visitation is associated with
reunification (Davis et al., 1996; Leathers, 2002)
• Supervised visitation services that (1) build strong
alliances with families, (2) provide skills training, and (3)
assist family members with concrete needs, result in
sustained reunification more often than comparison
services (Fraser, Walton, et. al, 1996)
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 11
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Research & Practice Challenge
• State regulations are varied and vague
• Programs are challenged by small budgets that limit
visitation hours, staffing by trained personnel, security,
and the number of families served
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 12
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Questions?
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 13
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Development of a Collaboration
• Stop Child Abuse and Neglect (SCAN): Large child
welfare agency serving 13 counties in northern Indiana
deciding to incorporate resilience building practices into
an existing visitation program
• Devereux Center for Resilient Children (DCRC): Nonprofit organization that develops resources and provides
training for the assessment and enhancement of resilience
in children and caregivers.
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 14
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Resilience
• The ability to recover from or
adjust to misfortune or change
• The ability to bounce back
• “Overcoming the Odds”
• Better than expected outcomes
in the context of adversity
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 15
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 16
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
By incorporating a resilience-focused
approach, the agency administration hoped
to give the children in their services tools
to function better than might-be-expected,
given their adverse life circumstances.
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 17
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Development of a Strengths-based
Approach to Supervised Visitation
• 15 hours of staff training to become familiar with
Devereux resources (e.g., DECA I/T, DECA P2, DESSA,
strategy guides for parents and staff)
• Drafted a book of family activities to help parents
recognize and promote resilience in their children
• 3 focus groups to consider implementation & adaptations
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 18
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Questions?
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 19
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Program Model
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 20
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
The theory of change underlying the
Sherman Model posits that changes
in the behavior of workers will result
in changes in the behavior of parents,
which will in turn promote resilience
Child
Resilience Improved & permanency for children.
Parenting Supportive
Coaching
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 21
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Six Elements
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The visitation environment
Strengths-based assessment
Resilience meetings between workers & caregivers
Stable visitation routines
Activities to promote resilience
Progress check-ups
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 22
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Enhancing the
Visitation Environment
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 23
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Visitation Environment - Baseline
• Visitation rooms were 10 feet by 12 feet, furnished with
spare office furniture and portable televisions
• Television watching was a common visitation activity
• Toys could be retrieved from a locked, central cabinet
• Worker: “rooms aren’t very warm or welcoming”
• How family members felt about rooms: “They hate them”
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 24
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Visitation Environment - Research
• Comfortable, home-like, positive, child proofed, with
clean, unbroken furniture, interesting toys, and
developmentally appropriate activities (Haight et al. 2002)
• Sufficient activities to encourage choice-making and to
allow for engagement with all children equally (Mourikis, 2002)
• Spaces that are organized and structured (Appelstein, 1998)
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 25
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Visitation Environment - Enhancements
• Created a checklist to guide preparation of the visit
environment
• Modified rooms to help the families feel comfortable and
dignified (e.g., fresh paint, living room furniture, softer
lighting, wall decorations, clean laminate floors with new
area rugs, and fresh blankets for floor time)
• Low shelves stocked with toys and materials to support
developmentally appropriate, interactive activities
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 26
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 27
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Visitation Environment - Feedback
• Worker: “I believe that having the tools the parent needs to
engage with their child, readily present and available, makes it
easier for the interaction to take place.”
• Worker: “The changes in the activities in each room has
greatly enhanced engagement between the parent and child.”
• Some agencies have found their local business communities
generous in supporting environmental enhancements of this
nature (Beyer, 2008)
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 28
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Strength-Based
Assessment
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 29
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Norm-Referenced Behavior Rating Scales
Measures the frequency of desirable child behaviors, reported by a parent
• The DECA-I for Infants (Mackrain et al., 2007) children aged four weeks
through 17 months. Two scales (Initiative and Attachment /
Relationships) as well as a summary score (Total Protective
Factors) are derived from 33 items.
• The DECA-T for Toddlers (Mackrain et al., 2007) is used for children
aged 18 through 35 months. Three scales (Initiative, Attachment /
Relationships, and Self-Regulation) and the Total Protective
Factors summary score are derived of 36 items.
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 30
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Norm-Referenced Behavior Rating Scales
Measures he frequency of desirable child behaviors, reported by a parent
• The DECA-P for Preschoolers (LeBuffe & Naglieri, 1999) is for children
aged two through five years. Three scales (Initiative, Attachment,
and Self-Control), a Total Protective Factors summary score, and a
Behavioral Concerns Screener, are derived from 37 items.
• The DESSA (LeBuffe et al., 2009) is used for children aged 5-14. Eight
scales (Self-Awareness, Social-Awareness, Self-Management,
Relationship Skills, Personal Responsibility, Decision Making,
Goal-Directed Behavior, and Optimistic Thinking) and a summary
score (Social-Emotional Composite) are derived from 72 items.
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 31
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 32
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Why & How
Research: A series of studies have demonstrated that these
scales have excellent reliability and validity for identifying
protective factors related to positive developmental outcomes in
the context of risk (LeBuffe & Shapiro, 2004; LeBuffe, Ross, Fleming, & Naglieri, 2013)
Practice: A standardized assessment is completed during intake
to determine whether each of the child’s protective factors are
typical relative to the national norms, high enough to be
considered a strength, or low enough to be considered an area
that needs to be developed
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 33
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Resilience Meetings
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 34
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Resilience Meeting - Purpose
• Begin to develop an alliance between parent and worker
• Discuss the child’s strengths
• Set visitation goals
• Select initial resilience-enhancing visitation activities
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 35
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Resilience Meeting - Literature
• The coaching of parents should begin before visitation starts
• Take the time for parents and workers to build rapport
• Agencies should to have a formalized process that requires
workers to seek family input
• Collaboratively develop visitation goals and plans
(Beyer, 2008; Haight et al., 2002) Gerring, Kemp, & Marcenko, 2008; NTAECSC, 2008; Mourikis,
2002; New York State Office of Children and Family Services, 2004; Nesmith, 2013)
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 36
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Resilience Meeting - Practice
• The worker facilitates introductions, provides an
overview of the Sherman Model and visitation routine,
reviews the child’s assessment results with the parent,
and assists with selection of child and parent goals and
coaching supports
• Workers were trained and provided with a sample
transcript to assist (as desired) with facilitation
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 37
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Resilience Plan
Goals are set for the child, the parent, and the worker (coach)
Children’s Goals:
• 1-2 goals are selected based on assessment results
• Older children are encouraged to be involved in setting goals
• Typical goal topics include: building trust and connection,
becoming curious and interested, improving confidence and
decision making, cultivating relations with others, and extending
learning from positive role models
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 38
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Resilience Plan
Goals are set for the child, the parent, and the worker (coach)
Parent’s Goals:
• 1-2 parenting goals are selected from a list
• Intended to support the child goals and increase the parent’s
competence and confidence in her/his parenting skills
• Typical goal topics include: naming a child’s feelings, staying
calm, or providing appropriate affection
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 39
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Resilience Plan
Goals are set for the child, the parent, and the worker (coach)
Coach’s Goals:
• Parent is encouraged to select 1-2 methods the coach can use to
support and encourage the parent during the visit
• The coaching supports typically include: asking questions,
modeling, offering creative ideas, playing alongside, and cueing
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 40
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Resilience Meetings
Research: Only one-half of workers report actively
helping parents prepare for the visit (Haight et al., 2002)
Practice: Workers have responded positively to the
format of the resilience meetings: “They really are
an easy way to join the family as a team and all get
on the same page. The structure really helps.”
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 41
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Visit Routine
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 42
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Stable Visitation Routines
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Greetings
Family Circle
Resilience Activities
Meal or Snack (when appropriate)
Clean-up
Review and Planning time
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 43
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Stable Visitation Routines
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 44
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Activities to
Promote Resilience
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 45
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Activities to Promote Resilience
Structured Activities from the Activities Book
• Organized by goal, lists age range, parenting skill suggestions, a
list of necessary materials, and step-by step instructions
• Parent: “I can’t help but be a part of the fun activities. They bring
more laughter out in all of us and it has been 4 to 5 years since my
son belly-laughed like today, which reminds me of how he still is
inside and how I am and how much I have learned.”
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 46
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Activities to Promote Resilience
• Parent-Planned Structured Activities
Worker: “Parents feel much more in control when they come up
with an idea of their own and then can receive validation and praise
from the worker.”
• Open-Ended Activities
Parents are taught that everyday moments can be transformed into
resilience-building experiences by keeping the goals in mind
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 47
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Progress Check-Up
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 48
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Progress Check-Up Rationale
• Research suggests that more contact between parents and
workers is associated with more frequent visitation and
less child time spent in out-of-home placements (McWey &
Mullis, 2004; White, Albers, & Bitonti, 1996)
• Progress in the parent–child relationship and the growth
of skills should be reviewed and celebrated (Fawcett et al., 1995)
• Goals / plans should be adjusted regularly (Loar, 1998)
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 49
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Progress Check-Up Meetings
• After each intervention period of completed services (approx.
10 visits), the children are re-assessed with an age-appropriate
Devereux strengths-based assessment
• The coach schedules a Check-Up Meeting with the parent in
order to review the family and child progress
• A discussion with the parent is held to celebrate
accomplishments and adjust goals, as desired, in the child,
parent, and coaching domains
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 50
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Questions about the model?
Up Next: Implementation
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 51
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Program Implementation
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 52
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Implementation Supports
• Training: 12 hrs. (Three 4 hr. modules; flexibly scheduled)
Training Participant: “I love every part of this program. It’s
intuitive and I can’t wait to have a plan that works for what I’ve
been trying to do.”
• Leadership Team: Meets on a weekly basis to plan,
review data, determine needs for support, and celebrate successes
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 53
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Implementation Supports
Staff Supervision - Strengths-based supervision is a promising
practice that may “contribute to a positive work environment,
decrease staff turnover, and increase job satisfaction.” (NTAECSC, 2008)
• 2x monthly staff meetings and monthly small group meetings to
foster team-building, provide group support, and discuss program
evaluation, refinement, and expansion.
• Provides consistent communication between workers & leadership
• Forum to discuss individual cases and highlight successes
• Each worker also meets weekly with direct supervisor for one hour
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 54
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Initial Successes - Workers
• 83% of staff agreed or strongly agreed that the program
improved their professional skills
• 96% of staff reported feeling comfortable using coaching
supports with parents
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 55
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Initial Successes – Children & Families
• 83% of staff A/SA that JSPRC helps promote resilience in children
• 91% of staff A/SA that the strengths-based assessments help create
appropriate goals with children & families
• 87% of staff A/SA that JSPRC helps parents engage during visits
• 87% of staff A/SA that JSPRC helps prepare parents for
reunification
• 84% of staff A/SA that JSPRC helps improve parenting skills
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 56
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Road Blocks
• Financial Support
• Practice Authority, Parent Caution, and Collaboration
• Difficult Role Changes
• Variability in Visit Locations
• Limited Intervention Time
• The Lack of Foster Parent Inclusion
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 57
CalSWEC Research & Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
Revisions
Joan Sherman Program for Resilient Children
A Strengths-based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
July 2014 Slide 58
California Social Work Education Center
Research and Training Network
Evidence-Informed Practice Series
A Strengths-based Approach to
Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare
Presented By:
Valerie Shapiro – [email protected]
Heidi Sims, SCAN – [email protected]

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