Dr. Deb’s Review From then til when? Introduction Through the Centuries since the mid-1600s, the nature and inclination of Curriculum has changed. The Colonial and National Periods were followed or segued through the impact of Nineteenth Century European Educators. Also during the Nineteenth Century was the Rise of Universal Education and the Transitional Period which accompanied it. The Field of Curriculum was born in 1918, but changes have continued to ensue. The dynamics of social change in the last fifty years have altered curriculum as well. Colonial Period 1642-1775 Colonial Regions New England Colonies Mid-Atlantic Colonies The South The Four R’s Colonial Period 1642-1775 Colonial Schools Town School Teacher’s pulpit and recitations Attendance based around family needs Parochial and Private Schools Focus on religious needs and vocational skills Latin Grammar Schools to support religious and social institutions of the era Academy Practical education for the non college student College Harvard or Yale National Period 1776-1850 Rush Classics prejudice the masses Devotion to the sciences! Free Elementary School Free Academy Free Colleges and Universities Jefferson Tax-payers should provide education for all Scholarship students pay back as teachers “Equality of educational opportunity” National Period 1776-1850 Webster Cultural independence of America The American Spelling Book McGuffey The Readers “combine the virtues of the Protestant faith with those of rural America – patriotism, heroism, hard work, diligence, and virtuous living.” Established grading system Ornstein, p. 67 19th Century European Educators Pestalozzi “general” method for emotional security “special” method for sensory learning Form – Number -- Sound Froebel “child’s garden” Self development, manipulative items, etc. Learning through play 19th Century European Educators Hebart Chief aim is moral education Diversified interests Balanced perspectives Knowledge interests Ethical interests 1-Preparation 2-Presentation 3-Association 4-Systemization 5-Application 19th Century European Educators Spencer Intelligent & productive populations would adapt and prosper Purpose: To prepare for complete living Teach HOW to think, not WHAT to think 1-sustain life 2-enhance life 3-aid in rearing children 4-maintain social and political relations 5-enhance leisure, tasks, and feelings Ornstein, p. 70 Universal Education 1820-1920 Monitorial Schools Joseph Lancaster – economy/efficiency Student monitors taught classes Smaller classes 4-R’s Common Schools Everyone equal in education Common classroom for all 3-R’s EVOLUTION OF ELEMENTARY CURRICULUM Universal Education 1820-1920 Secondary Schools Basically advanced elementary common schools The Academy Replaced Latin Grammar School Multi-focused – options based on needs The High School (for all youth) Compulsory attendance Produced a skilled workforce Assimilated immigrants EVOLVED SECONDARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM Transitional Period 1893-1918 Three Committees Committee of Fifteen – Elementary Education Compartmentalization of subject matter Committee of Ten – Secondary Education Four Tracks 1-Classical 2-Latin Scientific 3-Modern Languages 4-English Preferred hierarchy of first two tracks Committee on College Entrance Charles Eliot (Harvard) Evaluate and create Carnegie Unit structure Modern Curriculum Science, Psychology, and Curriculum? Influence of Peirce & James Theories of Darwin, et al Educational ideas of Dewey and Parker Gestalt psychology, etc. Flexner Rejected traditional secondary program Science Industry Civics Aesthetics Modern Curriculum Dewey Democracy and Education Subjects NOT in a value hierarchy “Method of inquiry” = “intelligent behavior” Judd Evolutionist Laws of nature should educate the young Introduction to the Scientific Study of Education Systematic studies of the curriculum Practical education, not elitist education Modern Curriculum Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education Cardinal Principles of Secondary Eeducation A composite of Flexner and Dewey 1-7 Principles/Aims 2-comprehensive high school 3-various programs in high school 4-psychology, pedagogy, assessment, etc 5-American education set of institutions in conjunction not isolation Birth of the Field 1918-1949 Bobbitt & Charters Focus on efficiency Time and motion studies – machine theory Objectives for curriculum 1 - ELIMINATE the impractical 2 - EMPHASIZE the important 3 - AVOID community opposed 4 - INVOLVE the community 5 - DIFFERENTIATE courses for all/some 6 - SEQUENCE the objectives in hierarchy Birth of the Field 1918-1949 Kilpatrick Progressive Child-centered, activity-centered Classroom/School Social/Group Project method Purposing – Planning – Executing -- Judging 26th Yearbook 1st half criticism of existing program 2nd half outlines ideal curriculum Birth of the Field 1918-1949 Rugg The Child-Centered School (Rugg & Shumaker) Curriculum specialists should make curriculum, not communities or students! Caswell Step-by-step procedure Tyler Eight year study What purpose? Experience? Organization? Assessment? Current Focus Two-way split Scientific and Technical vs Aesthetic and Humanistic 1960’s to the Present The onset of a series of assassinations, the rebellion against the War in Vietnam, the massive spread of drug activity, and the popular availability of birth control pills led to a sociological upheaval from which schools were most certainly not exempt. problems in school in the 1950’s - chewing gum &talking in class students of the 1960’s were smoking pot and getting pregnant Perhaps more problematic, they, and those who led them, felt that any consequence was the fault of another, and responsibility fled the scene. Current Focus 1960’s to the Present – continued Change in discipline Concern over psychological well-being Skyrocketing drop-out rates Fail to keep pace internationally Return to basics Rise in homeschooling Electronic influence DISCIPLINE A NECESSITY, NOT AN OPTION Teach how to think!