Dr. Deb*s Review

Report
Dr. Deb’s Review
From then til when?
Introduction
 Through the Centuries since the mid-1600s, the
nature and inclination of Curriculum has changed.
The Colonial and National Periods were followed
or segued through the impact of Nineteenth
Century European Educators. Also during the
Nineteenth Century was the Rise of Universal
Education and the Transitional Period which
accompanied it. The Field of Curriculum was born
in 1918, but changes have continued to ensue.
The dynamics of social change in the last fifty
years have altered curriculum as well.
Colonial Period 1642-1775
 Colonial Regions
 New England Colonies
 Mid-Atlantic Colonies
 The South
 The Four R’s
Colonial Period 1642-1775
 Colonial Schools
 Town School
 Teacher’s pulpit and recitations
 Attendance based around family needs
 Parochial and Private Schools
 Focus on religious needs and vocational
skills
 Latin Grammar Schools
 to support religious and social institutions
of the era
 Academy
 Practical education for the non college
student
 College
 Harvard or Yale
National Period 1776-1850
 Rush
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Classics prejudice the masses
Devotion to the sciences!
Free Elementary School
Free Academy
Free Colleges and Universities
 Jefferson
 Tax-payers should provide education for all
 Scholarship students pay back as teachers
 “Equality of educational opportunity”
National Period 1776-1850
 Webster
 Cultural independence of America
 The American Spelling Book
 McGuffey
 The Readers “combine the virtues of the
Protestant faith with those of rural
America – patriotism, heroism, hard
work, diligence, and virtuous living.”
 Established grading system
Ornstein, p. 67
19th Century European Educators
 Pestalozzi
 “general” method for emotional security
 “special” method for sensory learning
 Form – Number -- Sound
 Froebel
 “child’s garden”
 Self development, manipulative items, etc.
 Learning through play
19th Century European Educators
 Hebart
 Chief aim is moral education
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Diversified interests
Balanced perspectives
Knowledge interests
Ethical interests
 1-Preparation
 2-Presentation
 3-Association
 4-Systemization
 5-Application
19th Century European Educators
 Spencer
 Intelligent & productive populations
would adapt and prosper
 Purpose: To prepare for complete living
 Teach HOW to think, not WHAT to think
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1-sustain life
2-enhance life
3-aid in rearing children
4-maintain social and political relations
5-enhance leisure, tasks, and feelings
Ornstein, p. 70
Universal Education 1820-1920
 Monitorial Schools
 Joseph Lancaster – economy/efficiency
 Student monitors taught classes
 Smaller classes
 4-R’s
 Common Schools
 Everyone equal in education
 Common classroom for all
 3-R’s
 EVOLUTION OF ELEMENTARY CURRICULUM
Universal Education 1820-1920
 Secondary Schools
 Basically advanced elementary common
schools
 The Academy
 Replaced Latin Grammar School
 Multi-focused – options based on needs
 The High School (for all youth)
 Compulsory attendance
 Produced a skilled workforce
 Assimilated immigrants
 EVOLVED SECONDARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM
Transitional Period 1893-1918
 Three Committees
 Committee of Fifteen – Elementary Education
 Compartmentalization of subject matter
 Committee of Ten – Secondary Education
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Four Tracks
1-Classical
2-Latin Scientific
3-Modern Languages
4-English
Preferred hierarchy of first two tracks
 Committee on College Entrance
 Charles Eliot (Harvard)
 Evaluate and create Carnegie Unit structure
Modern Curriculum
 Science, Psychology, and Curriculum?
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Influence of Peirce & James
Theories of Darwin, et al
Educational ideas of Dewey and Parker
Gestalt psychology, etc.
 Flexner
 Rejected traditional secondary program
 Science
 Industry
 Civics
 Aesthetics
Modern Curriculum
 Dewey
 Democracy and Education
 Subjects NOT in a value hierarchy
 “Method of inquiry” = “intelligent behavior”
 Judd
 Evolutionist
 Laws of nature should educate the young
 Introduction to the Scientific Study of
Education
 Systematic studies of the curriculum
 Practical education, not elitist education
Modern Curriculum
 Commission on the Reorganization of
Secondary Education
 Cardinal Principles of Secondary
Eeducation
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A composite of Flexner and Dewey
1-7 Principles/Aims
2-comprehensive high school
3-various programs in high school
4-psychology, pedagogy, assessment, etc
5-American education
 set of institutions in conjunction not isolation
Birth of the Field 1918-1949
 Bobbitt & Charters
 Focus on efficiency
 Time and motion studies – machine theory
 Objectives for curriculum
 1 - ELIMINATE the impractical
 2 - EMPHASIZE the important
 3 - AVOID community opposed
 4 - INVOLVE the community
 5 - DIFFERENTIATE courses for all/some
 6 - SEQUENCE the objectives in hierarchy
Birth of the Field 1918-1949
 Kilpatrick
 Progressive
 Child-centered, activity-centered
 Classroom/School Social/Group
 Project method
 Purposing – Planning – Executing -- Judging
 26th Yearbook
 1st half criticism of existing program
 2nd half outlines ideal curriculum
Birth of the Field 1918-1949
 Rugg
 The Child-Centered School (Rugg & Shumaker)
 Curriculum specialists should make
curriculum, not communities or students!
 Caswell
 Step-by-step procedure
 Tyler
 Eight year study
 What purpose? Experience? Organization?
Assessment?
Current Focus
 Two-way split
 Scientific and Technical vs
 Aesthetic and Humanistic
 1960’s to the Present
 The onset of a series of assassinations, the rebellion against the
War in Vietnam, the massive spread of drug activity, and the
popular availability of birth control pills led to a sociological
upheaval from which schools were most certainly not exempt.
 problems in school in the 1950’s - chewing gum &talking in class
 students of the 1960’s were smoking pot and getting pregnant
 Perhaps more problematic, they, and those who led them, felt that
any consequence was the fault of another, and responsibility fled
the scene.
Current Focus
 1960’s to the Present – continued
 Change in discipline
 Concern over psychological well-being
 Skyrocketing drop-out rates
 Fail to keep pace internationally
 Return to basics
 Rise in homeschooling
 Electronic influence
 DISCIPLINE A NECESSITY, NOT AN OPTION
Teach how to think!

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