RESOURCES AND APPROACHES FOR POVERTY LEVEL STUDENTS Presentation Outline • Introduction to Poverty • Special Populations Students and Poverty • Poverty Resources and Approaches Poverty Persons in family/household Poverty guideline For families/households with more than 8 persons, add $4,060 for each additional person. 1 $11,670 2 15,730 3 19,790 4 23,850 5 27,910 6 31,970 7 36,030 8 40,090 Economically Disadvantaged • There are 46.2 million United States citizens in poverty, the largest number ever recorded since such estimates started in 1959 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011). • The amount of individuals in poverty has grown for three consecutive years and is currently at 15.1% of the U.S. population. • 21% of all students in public schools are living below the poverty line (NCES, 2012). • Minority students are in poverty at a much higher rate than their white counterparts: 37% of Black students, 34% of Hispanic students, and 33% of Native American/Alaskan Native are in poverty. Women in Poverty • More than 100 million of us live on or over the brink of poverty • • • • or churn in and out of it – 70 percent of this group are women and children (42 million women, 28 million kids) Women are nearly two-thirds of minimum-wage workers in this country. More than 70 percent of low-wage workers get no paid sick days at all. Forty percent of all households with children under the age of 18 include mothers who are either the sole or primary source of income. American women are approximately half of all workers in this country, but the average woman earns only 77 percent of what the average man makes, and women of color earn even less. (Shriver, 2014) Illinois CTE Data 6 S2 Nontraditional Completion Male Female White Black Hispanic Asian Pacific Islander American Indian Multiracial 2011 6620 5232 6324 2601 2363 311 10 51 192 2012 10,357 8741 11,364 3270 3598s 446 13 57 350 2013 9686 8251 11,756 2300 2978 436 16 51 400 Illinois CTE Data 6 S1 Nontraditional Participation Limited English Proficiency Students with Disabilities Nontraditional Economic Disadvantage Single Parent Displaced Homemaker Migrant 2011 2989 21,729 162,763 62,892 204 119 53 2012 3128 21,961 166,491 65,940 482 426 34 2013 2231 19,989 152,114 58,705 114 0 71 2011 186 1761 11,596 5346 20 9 1 2012 256 2815 18,695 8002 36 29 3 2013 174 2462 16,765 6922 14 0 8 6 S2 Nontraditional Completion Limited English Proficiency Students with Disabilities Nontraditional Economic Disadvantage Single Parent Displaced Homemaker Migrant Special Populations Students Poverty Contributors: • Individuals with Disabilities • Economically Disadvantaged • Limited English Proficiency • Nontraditional Fields • Displaced Homemakers • Single Parents Disabilities • The number of students receiving service for disabilities is over 6.5 million, equal to 13% of total public school enrollment. (NCES, 2012) • In 2009–10, 38% of all children receiving special education services had specific learning disabilities, 22% had speech or language impairments, and 11% had other health impairments. • Students with disabilities such as intellectual disabilities, emotional disturbances, developmental delay, and autism each accounted for between 6 and 7% of children • Students with multiple disabilities, hearing impairments, orthopedic impairments, and visual impairments; traumatic brain injury; and deaf-blindness each accounted for less than 2% (NCES, 2012) Limited English Proficiency • In 1990, the public school student population was White (67.3%), Black (16.7%), and Hispanic (11.7%). • In 2010, the ethnic makeup of students has shifted to White (53.5%), Hispanic (23.3%), and Black (15%). • Along with the racial changes, ELL students have increased from 7.4% in 2000-2001 to 9.7% in 2009-2010. Nontraditional • Nontraditional occupations are defined as occupational fields in which less than 25 percent of the workforce is made up of a specific group • Gender • Race Single Parent • Unmarried or legally separated from a spouse; and • Has a minor child or children from which the parent has either custody or joint custody; or is pregnant. Displaced homemaker • An individual who has worked primarily without remuneration to care for a home and a family, and for that reason has diminished marketable skills; • Has been dependent on the income of another family member but is no longer supported by that income; or • Is a parent whose youngest dependent child will become ineligible to receive financial assistance. Poor Children… • Spend less time exploring the world and more time trying • • • • to survive. Have fewer and less-supportive networks. Live in neighborhoods lower in social capital. More likely to rely on their peers than adults for emotional and social support. More likely to come from single guardian homes with less emotionally responsive parents. The Seven Engagement Factors • Health and nutrition • Vocabulary • Effort and Energy • Mind-set • Cognitive capacity • Relationships • Stress level (Jensen, 2009) Question 1 In your school setting, how do you identify poverty-level student who are at-risk? Most Significant Risk Factors •Emotional and Social Challenges •Acute and Chronic Stressors •Cognitive Lags •Health and Safety Issues (Jensen, 2009) Emotional and Social Challenges • Action Steps • Embody Respect to the students • Embed social skills into each grade level to strengthen. • Be inclusive by creating familial atmosphere by using inclusive language (such as “our school”) Acute and Chronic Stressors • Action Steps • Recognize the signs • Student believes they have minimal control over stressors • Student has now idea how long the stressor will last • Student interoperates stressors getting worse. • Alter the environment • Allow in class time for homework or right after class • Use cooperative structures; avoid top-down authoritative approach • Help students blow off steam by incorporating physical activities (Walks, relays, games, etc.) Acute and Chronic Stressors • Action steps • Empower Students • Introduce conflict resolution skills • Teach students how to deal with anger • Introduce responsibilities and value of restitution • Teach students to set goals • Role model how to solve real world problems • Give students weekly “real world” live problems to solve • Teach social skills • Introduce stress reduction techniques. Cognitive Lags • Action Steps • Build core skills • Attention and focus • Memory • Sequencing and Processing • Problem solving • Perseverance • Social Skills • Hopefulness and self-esteem • Pinpoint assessments on specific skills • Provide hope and support Health and Safety Issues • Action steps • Provide a physician on-site once a week • Work with local pharmacy to provide medications • Arrange for dentist to make school visits • Educate the caregivers about school resources • Provide tutors to help students “catch-up” missed work • Improve awareness among staff about health-related issues Question 2 What kinds of steps can you take school wide to address these poverty risk factors? Baruti Kafele SHARE Factors •Support the whole child •Hard Data •Accountability •Relationship Building •Enrichment mind-set (Jensen, 2009) Support the Whole Child • Survey Student Needs • Include Parents and provide adult support • Develop Community Partnerships Hard Data • Develop criteria for the data you need (Survey the following questions) • Both generally and specifically, how are we doing? • To what degree are we serving the needs of all students? • What are we good at, and where do we need help? • Gather only the data you need • SCARF – specific, continuous, accurate, relevant and fast. • Analyze and share the data • Develop plans to share the data Accountability • Increase teacher’s control and authority • Value your teachers • Redesign staffing roles Relationship Building • Build relationships among staff • Build relationships among students • Build student-staff relationships • avoid raising voice unless it is emergency • do what you say you are going to do • acknowledge a change • Never demand… Always say please and thank you • Own your mistakes • Be consistent and fair to all (show no favoritism) • Offer all the support you can • Look for positive reinforcement opportunities • Show care more than you show authority Enrichment • Create a strong environmental message (own your space with vigilance) • Create staff wide enrichment mind-set (enrich like crazy) • Always look for one more enriching edge. Question 3 • In your school setting, how do you engage students in poverty? Baruti Kafele The Five Rules for Engagement • Upgrade your attitude • Build relationships and respect • Get buy-in • Embrace clarity • Show your passion (Jensen, 2013) Specific Strategies • Engage for positive climate • Engage to build cognitive capacity • Engage for motivation and effort • Engage for deep understanding • Engage for energy and focus • Automate engagement Four Actions for Successful Implementation • Get organized • Engage with differentiation • Know what to expect • Break down the breakdowns Special Populations in CTE Project • Five Statewide Activities • Performance Assessment and Accountability Training • Website • Professional Development • Technical Assistance • Innovation Initiatives Support IllinoisCTE.org Resources Lessons Contact us • Chris Merrill – [email protected] • Josh Brown – [email protected] • Sally Arnett-Hartwick – [email protected] • Online – www.illinoiscte.org • Telephone – 309-438-7862 • Facebook – Illinois CTE • Twitter - @ILCTESpecPops Resources • Jensen, E (2013). Engaging students with poverty in mind. ASCD: Alexandria, VA. • Jensen, E (2009). Teaching with Poverty in Mind. ASCD: Alexandria,VA. • Kafele, B. (2013). Closing the Attitude Gap: How to Fire Up Your Students to Strive for Success. ASCD: Alexandria VA. • Shriver, Maria (2014). The Shriver Report: A Woman’s Nation Pushes Back from the Brink. Rosetta Books.