REPRODUCTIVESYSTEM

Report
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FUNCTION ?
http://missmsoledad.files.wordpress.com/2008/06/gametogenesis.jpg
http://www.stanford.edu/group/Urchin/GIFS/meiosis1.gif
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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FORMATION OF
SPERM AND EGG ?
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SYNAPSIS: HOMOLOGOUS
CHROMOSOMES PAIR UP AND
INTERTWINE: FORMS TETRADS
CROSS OVER COMMON
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HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOME PAIRS
SEPARATE
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SAME AS MITOSIS WITH REPLICATED
PAIRS
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PROPHASE II: SAME AS MITOSIS
ANAPHASE II: CENTROMERES SEPARATE
RELEASING CHROMATIDS: NOW
CHROMOSOMES
TELOPHASE II:
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PRODUCE/MAINTAIN SPERM CELLS
TRANSPORT TO FEMALE TRACT
SECRETE MALE SEX HORMONES
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1-2 MONTHS DROP FROM NEAR KIDNEYS
TO SCROTUM ?
STIMULATED BY TESTOSTERONE
GUBERNACULUM
CRYPTORCHIDISM
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TUNICA ALBUGINEA
MEDIASTINUM TESTIS: CONNECTIVE TISSUE
(SEPTA) DIVIDE TESTIS TO 250 LOBULES
LOBULE: 4 SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES UNITE TO
RETE TESTIS IN MEDIASTINUM TO
EPIDIDYMIS TO DUCTUS DEFERENS
SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES: SPECIALIZED
STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM
SPERMATOGENIC CELLS: ?
 INTERSTITIAL CELLS: CELLS OF LEYDIG: MALE SEX
HORMONES
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SUSTENACULAR CELLS: SERTOLI CELLS:
COLUMNAR; SUPPORT, NOURISH,
REGULATE SPERMATAOGENIC CELLS
aboutcancer.com
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MALE EMBRYO: HORMONES ACTIVATE
SPERMATOGONIA: MITOSIS FORMS:
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A CELLS (SAME)
B CELLS: PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTE
SPERMATOGENESIS WAITS TILL PUBERTY
MORE TESTOSTERONE: NEW MITOSIS;
MEIOSIS  2 SECONDARY SPERMATOCYTES
 SPERMATIDS HOW MANY?
DURING SPERMATOGENESIS CELLS MOVE
TOWARDS LUMEN
BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER: TIGHT JUNCTIONS
OF SUSTENACULAR CELLS WHY?
SPERMATOGENSIS OCCURS CONTINUOUSLY
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SPERM CELLS  LUMEN  RETE TESTIS 
EPIDIDYMUS: COLLECT/MATURE
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=sperm+cell&view
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0.06 mm
ACROMOSOME: ENZYMES TO ENTER EGG
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HYALURONIDASE
MIDPIECE: MITOCHONDRIA ?
TAIL: FLAGELLUM: MICROTUBULES
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6 METERS LONG
PSEUDOSTRATIFIEDCOLUMNAR,
NONMOTILE CILIA SECRETE FLUID WITH
GLYCOGEN FOR ?
PERISTALTSIS MOVES SPERM THROUGH
AS MATURE
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VASA DEFERENTIA/ VAS DEFERENS
45 cm
PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR
EPITHELIUM
THROUGH INGUINAL CANAL
END: DILATES TO AMPULLA
JOINS SEMINAL VESSICLE DUCT TO
EJACULATORY DUCT TO PROSTATE
GLAND TO URETHRA
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CONVOLUTED SAC, 5 cm
GLANDULAR TISSUE LINING: SECRETES
SLIGHTLY ALKALINE FLUID WITH
FRUCTOSE AND PROSTAGLANDINS
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PROTECT SPERM AS IT TRAVELS
ENERGY
STIMULATE CONTRACTIONS OF FEMALE
TRACT ?
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://rpmedia.ask.com/
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4 x 3 cm
BRANCHED TUBULAR GLANDS
SEPARATED BY CONNECTIVE TISSUE
SEPTA AND SMOOTH MUSCLE SECRETE
INTO URETHRA
THIN, MILKY FLUID
ALKALINE VS. METABOLIC WASTE OF SPERM &
FEMALE TRACT
 HELPS MOBILIZE SPERM
SMOOTH MUSCLE CONTRACTS FOR SECRETION
WHEN SEMEN ENTERS
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1 cm
URETHRA BELOW PROSTRATE
TUBES OF GLANDULAR EPITHELIAL
TISSUE
SECRETES MUCUS LIKE FLUID WHEN
STIMULATION OCCURS FOR SOME
LUBRICATION
nursingcrib.com
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2-5 mm
120 MILLION SPERM PER mm
SPERM CELLS; FLUID FROM SEMINAL
VESSICLES, PROSTATE GLAND AND
BULBOURETHRAL GLAND
ALKALINE, PROSTAGLANDINS AND
NUTRIENTS
CAPACITATION
LAST WEEKS IN MALE, CAN ONLY
FERTILIZE FOR 1-2 DAYS
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SCROTUM:
SUBCUTANEOUS MEMBRANE OF SMOOTH
MUSCLE, NO FAT ?
 3º COOLER
 MEDIAL SEPTUM DIVIDES IN TWO
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BODY: ERECTILE TISSUE: PAIR OF COPORA
CAVERNOSA AND CORPUS SPONGIOSUM
TUNICA ALBUGINEA GLANS: EXTERNAL
URETHRAL ORIFICE
FORESKIN: PREPUCE
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PARASYMPATHETIC NS RELEASES
VASODILATOR N ITRIC ACID
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DILATES ARTERIES
THIS CONSTRICTS VEINS ?
(BLOOD ENTERS AND PRESSURE BUILDS)
SYMPATHETIC NS CONTROLS EMISSION
(PERISTALSIS) AND EJACULATION
ERECTILE TISSUE STIMULATED, SKELETAL
MUSCLE CONTRACTS
BULBOURETHRAL FLUID FIRST,
PROSTATE, SPERM, THEN SEMINAL
VESSICLES
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HYPOTHALAMUS  GnRH 
GONADOTROPINS: LH/FSH
LH (ICSH IN MALES) : STIMUATES
DEVELOPMENT OF INTERSTITIAL CELLS
FSH STIMULATES SUSTENACULAR CELLS
FSH AND TESTOSTERONE
SPERMATOGENESIS
SUSTENACULAR CELLS PRODUCE INHIBIN
PREVENTS OVERPRODUCTION OF FSH
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ANDROGENS
MOSTLY BY INTERSTITIAL CELLS; SOME ?
TESTOSTERONE: STEROID HORMONE;
CARRIED BY PLASMA PROTEINS TO
RECEPTOR
IN PROSTATE, SEMINAL VESSICLES:
CHANGED TO DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE TO
FUNCTION
EXCESS CHANGED BY LIVER AND EXCRETED
PRODUCED AROUND BIRTH AND AT
PUBERTY
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8 WEEK EMBRYO:
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FORMATION OF MALE GLANDS; TESTICULAR
DECENSION LATER
PUBERTY:
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MALE GLANDS GROW AND DEVELOP
SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS:
 BODY HAIR; ADAM’S APPLE; THICKENING OF
SKIN; MUSCULAR GROWTH: SHOULDERS AND
WAIST; BONES THICKEN/STRENGTHEN;
INCREASED METABOLISM; RELEASE OF
ERYTHROPOIETIN;
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HYPOTHALAMUS RELEASES GnRH TO
ANTERIOR PITUITARY TO RELEASE LH TO
INTERSTITIAL CELLS TO RELEASE
TESTOSTERONE
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
MALE CLIMATERIC: TESTOSTERONE
DECREASES
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FOR PRODUCTION AND MATURATION OF
EGG
TRANSPORT FOR FERTILIZATION
ENVIRONMENT FOR EMBRYONIC
DEVELOPMENT
BIRTH
FEMALE SEX HORMONES
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3.5 x 2 x 1 cm
HELD BY LIGAMENTS:
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BROAD LIGAMENT; SUSPENSORY LIGAMENT
AND OVARIAN LIGAMENT
DESCEND TO PELVIC BRIM
MEDULLA AND CORTEX
MEDULLA: LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE,
BLOOD, NERVES, LYMPH,
CORTEX: OVARIAN FOLLICLES
TUNICA ALBUGINEA
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EMBRYO: HAS ALL EGGS, MITOSIS: MORE
OOGONIA  PRIMARY OOCYTES
PRIMARY OOCYTE COVERED BY
FLATTENED EPITHELIAL CELLS=
FOLLICULAR CELLS  PRIMORDIAL
FOLLICLE; RESTS TILL PUBERTY
EMBRYO: SEVERAL MILLION EGGS 
BIRTH: 1 MILLION  PUBERTY: 400,000 
~400 RELEASED  A FEW FERTILIZED
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PUBERTY: A FEW STIMULATED TO GO
THROUGH MEIOSIS
UNEVEN CYTOPLASMIC DIVISION =
POLAR BODIES
IF FERTILIZED, SECONDARY OOCYTE
DIVIDES TO FORM LAST POLAR BODY
PUBERTY: INCREASED PRODUCTION OF
FSH  OVARIES ENLARGE
FSH STIMULATES SOME (UP TO 20)
PRIMORDIAL OOCYTES TO MATURE,
FOLLICULAR CELLS DIVIDE =
GRANULOSA CELLS: STRATIFIED
EPITHELIUM, ZONA PELLUCIDA
(GLYCOPROTINE LAYER) FORMS 
PRIMARY FOLLICLE
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OVARIES DEVELOP:
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INNER VASCULAR LAYER: THECA INTERNA:
STEROID SECRETING CELLS
OUTER FIBROUS LAYER: THECA EXTERNA:
CONNECTIVE TSSUE
FOLLICULAR CELLS PROLIFERATE:
SECONDARY FOLLICLE
1 WEEK: DOMINANT FOLLICLE FORMS
MATURES IN 10-14 DAYS TO GRAAFIAN
FOLLICLE
SECONDARY OOCYTE DEVELOPS WITH
THICK ZONA PELLUCIDA AND CORONA
RADIATA OF FOLLICLE WHICH SUPPLIES
NUTRIENTS TO OOCYTE
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OVULATION: STIMULATED BY LH: CAUSES
SWELLING & RUPTURE OF FOLLICLE
PICKED UP BY UTERINE TUBE: MUST BE
FERTILIZED SHORTLY
http://www.biog1105-1106.org/demos/105/unit8/media/ovary-schematic.jpg
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UTERINE TUBES:
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BROAD LIGAMENT
10 cm x .7 cm
INFUNDIBULUM WITH FIMBRIAE
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d4/Gray589.png
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7 x 5 cm x 2.5 cm
BROAD LIGAMENT COVERS
ROUND LIGAMENT TO PELVIC WALL
BODY
FUNDUS
CERVIX
CERVICAL ORIFICE
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OSTIUM UTERI
www.becomehealthynow.com/images/organs/reproduction/uterus_adnexa_bh.jpg
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ENDOMETRIUM
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MYOMETRIUM
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MUCOSAL, COLUMNAR EPITHEILIUM,
TUBULAR GLANDS
SMOOTH MUSCLE: LONGITUDINAL, CIRCULAR,
SPIRAL
PERIMETRIUM
http://www.netterimages.com/
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9 cm
FIBROMUSCULAR TUBE
ALLOWS SPERM IN/ BABY OUT
SURROUNDS CERVIX
VAGINAL ORIFICE: HYMEN
LAYERS
MUCOSAL: STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS, VAGINAL
RUGAE, NO MUCOUS GLANDS
 MUSCULAR: SMOOTH, LONGITUDINAL AND
CIRCULAR; THIN STRIATED AT MOUTH ALSO
BULBOSPONGIOSUS: CLOSED
 FIBROUS: DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE, ELASTIC
FIBERS, CONNECTIONS
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LABIA MAJORA
ENCLOSE PROTECT REST
 SKIN, ADIPOSE TISSUE, SMOOTH MUSCLE
 HAIR, SWEAT GLANDS
 COVERS VAGINAL OPENINGS
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LABIA MINORA
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FLATTENED LONGITUDINAL FOLDS INSIDE
CONNECTIVE TISSUE, BLOOD VESSELS
STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS
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2cm, 0.5 cm
2 COLUMNS OF COPORA CAVERNOSA
SENSORY NERVE FIBERS
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SPACE WITHIN LABIA MINORA
VESTIBULAR GLANDS/BARTHOLIN’S
GLANDS
VESTIBULAR BULBS: VASCULAR ERECTILE
TISSUE
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SEXUAL STIMULATION 
PARASYMPATHETIC NS  VASODILATOR
NITRIC OXIDE  ERECTION
STIMULATES VESTIBULAR GLANDS TO
RELEASE MUCUS
CLITORAL STIMULATION  ORGASM 
REFLEXES IN SACRAL AND LUMBAR
SPINAL CORD  CONTRACTION OF
UTERINE TUBES AND UTERUS ?
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~10 YEARS: HYPOTHALAMUS  GnRH 
ANTERIOR PITUITARY  FSH & LH 
OVARIES, ADRENAL CORTEX, PLACENTA
RELEASE HORMONES
ESTROGEN
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ESTRADIOL MOSTLY, ESTRONE, ESTRIOL
PROGESTERONE
PUBERTY: OVARIES RELEASE ESTROGEN:
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ENLARGEMENT OF OVARIES AND OTHER
ORGANS
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SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS
DEVELOPMENT OF BREASTS AND MAMMARY
GLANDS
 MORE ADIPOSE TISSUE
 INCREASES VASCULARIZATION OF SKIN
PROGESTERONE: FROM OVARIES: CHANGES IN
ENDOMETRIUM LINING, MAMMARY GLANDS,
RELEASE OF GONADOTROPINS
ANDROGEN: FROM ADRENAL CORTEX: MORE
HAIR, DEVELOPMENT OF SKELETON
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FIRST: MENARCHE
HYPOTHALAMUS  GnRH  ANTERIOR
PITUITARY  FSH & LH
FSH: MATURATION OF FOLLICLE;
GRANULOSA CELLS  ESTROGEN AND
SOME PROGESTERONE
LH  OVARIAN CELLS  PRECURSOR
MOLECULES  ESTROGEN
INCREASING ESTROGEN LEVEL 
PROLIFERATIVE STAGE: ENDOMETRIUM
THICKENS AS FOLLICLE MATURES
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DAY 14: ANTERIOR PITUITARY RELEASES
LH  OVULATION
OLD FOLLICLE/THECA INTERNA 
CORPUS LUTEUM: GLANDULAR 
PROGESTERONE  DEVELOPS
ENDOMETRIUM MORE & UTERINE
GLANDS TO SECRETE GLYCOGEN AND
LIPIDS: SECRETORY PHASE ??
HIGH ESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE
INHIBIT FSH & LH NO MORE FOLLICLE
STIMULATION
IF NOT FERTILIZED: CORPUS LUTEUM 
CORPUS ALBICANS: ESTROGEN AND
PROGESTERONE DECREASE
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BLOOD VESSELS CONSTRICT/LESS O2/
CELLS SLOUGH OFF: MENSES: DAY 28 FOR
3-5 DAYS
FSH AND LH INCREASE: NEW CYCLE
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LATE 40/EARLY 50
IRREGULAR/MONTHS TO YEARS: ENDS
AGE OF OVARIES: FEW PRIMARY OOCYTES,
FOLLICLES DON’T MATURE, NO OVULATION,
LESS ESTROGEN EXCEPT FOR ADRENAL
ESTROGEN; LESS PROGESTERONE
SECONDARY CHARACTERISTICS CHANGE:
SHRINK
LOSS OF BONE, THINNING OF SKIN
50% NO SYMPTOMS; HOT FLASHES,
MIGRAINES, FATIGUE, MUSCLE SORENESS
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15-20 LOBES; DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
AND ADIPOSE TISSUE
ALVEOLAR GLANDS  ALVEOLAR DUCTS
 LACTIFEROUS DUCT  NIPPLE
SUSPENSORY LIGAMENTS
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DETERMINED BY YOUR BELIEFS: WHEN IS
THE DEVELOPING FETUS ALIVE?
COITUS INTERRUPTUS
RHYTHM METHOD
MECHANICAL BARRIERS
CONDOM: MALE; FEMALE
 DIAPHRAGM
 CERVICAL CAP
 OFTEN WITH SPERMICIDAL JELLY
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CHEMICAL BARRIER
 SPERMICIDAL CREAMS, FOAMS, JELLIES,
 HIGHER FAILURE RATE WHEN USED ALONE
COMBINED HORMONE CONTRACEPTIVES
ESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE LIKE
CHEMICAL RING: MONTH
PLASTIC PATCH
PILL
MINIPILL
DISRUPT FSH AND LH SECRETION
USUALLY AROUND 100%
INJECTABLE CONTRACEPTION – FOR 3 MONTHS
INTRAUTERINE DEVICES
SURGICAL METHODS
VASECTOMY
TUBAL LIGATION

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