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Report
Engineering 11
Manufacturing
Processes
Bruce Mayer, PE
Licensed Electrical & Mechanical Engineer
[email protected]
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
1
Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Select Manufacturing Processes
 Manufacturing process decisions
 Deformation processes
 Casting processes
 Sheet metalworking
 Polymer processing
 Machining
 Finishing/Joining
 Assembly
 Material-Compatibilities & Process-Capabilities
 Material costs, Tooling costs, Processing costs
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Make a Mountain Bike
 Select Processes to Manufacture a Bike
Seat
Post
Rear Brake
Rear
Derailleur
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Handle Bar
Top
Tube
Saddle
Fork
Down
Tube
Front Brake
Pedal
(Courtesy of Trek Bicycle, 2002)
Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Manufacturing Process Decisions
 How to choose the specific manufacturing
processes?
 How do the selected materials influence the
choice of manufacturing processes?
 Would product function or performance
issues influence the choice of processes?
 What criteria should be used to select
processes?
 What are the Priority of the Criteria?
 Who makes the final decisions?
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Design for Manuf (DFM) Guidelines
 Keep Functional & Physical
Characteristics as SIMPLE as Possible
• Simple & Sturdy parts are Easier to Make,
and have Higher Reliability
 Design for the
LOWEST COST
Production Method
• Critical for
HI-VOLUME Parts
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Design for Manuf (DFM) Guidelines
 Design for the Minimum Number for
Processing Steps (what’s a “step”?)
• Try to ELIMINATE Steps thru Thoughtful
Product Design
 Specify Tolerances NO TIGHTER than
Actually Needed
• OverToleranced Design leads to Increased
Cost thru
– UnNeeded Processing Efforts
– “False Positive” Scrap
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Part-Processing Sequence
 Primary Process  alter the (“raw”)
material’s basic shape or form. e.g.,
• Casting
• Rolling
• Forging
• Drawing
• Molding
• Extruding
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• That is, take a
“bolb” of
material and
give it a basic
shape; e.g.
– Angle Iron
– Tube/Pipe
– Sheet/Plate
Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Part-Processing Sequence
 Secondary Process  add or remove
geometric features from the basic forms
alter the (“raw”) material’s basic shape
or form. e.g.,
• Machining of a brake drum
casting (flat surfaces)
• Drilling/punching of refrigerator
housings (sheet metal)
• Trimming of
injection molded part “flash”
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Part-Processing Sequence
 Tertiary Process  surface treatments.
e.g.,
• Polishing
• Painting
• Heat-Treating
• Joining
• Plating
• Anodizing
• Thin Film Coating
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Process Selection Criteria
 Compatibility with
Selected Materials
 Dimensional
Accuracy and
Tolerance
 Surface Finish
 Need for PostProcess Operations
• e.g., Heat Treating
 Size & Weight
Capacity
 Lead Time
 Min/Max Production
Quantities
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Cost Factors
 Influence of Special
Desired Features
 Special Handling
Equipment
• e.g., Threaded
Inserts, DoveTail
Grooves
 Special Inspection
Equipment
 Materials Availability
 Need for Special
Tooling
 Yield
• i.e., Scrap Rate
 PostProcess Finish
Operations
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Manuf Process Classifications
Manufacturing
Processes
Deformation
Extrusion
Forging
Rolling
Bar drawing
Wire drawing
Casting
Centrifugal
Die casting
Investment
Permanent mold
Sand casting
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Sheet
Metal
Bending
Blanking
Drawing
Punching
Shearing
Spinning
Polymer
Processes
Blow molding
Casting
Compression molding
Extrusion
Injection Molding
Thermoforming
Transfer molding
Machining
Finishing
Boring
Drilling
Facing
Grinding
Milling
Planing
Turning
Sawing
ECM, EDM
Anodizing
Honing
Painting
Plating
Polishing
Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Assembly
Automated
Bonding
Brazing
Manual
Riveting
Soldering
Welding
Deformation Processes
 Rolling
 Drawing
 Extrusion
 Forging
 Rolling
Rollers in compression
thick
slab
thin
sheet
Plastic deformation
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Roll To Different Final Shape
bloom
structural
ingot
sheet
slab
billet
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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bar or
or
coil
rod
Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Extrusion & Drawing
 Extrusion
 Drawing
Extrusion Die
Drawing Die
OutPut
Cross
Sections
OutPut
Cross
Sections
Ram
Billet
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Billet
Pulling
force
Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Forging (Closed Die Version)
Ram pressure
Blocked
preform
Flash
Gutter
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Casting Processes
 Sand Casting
 Die Casting
 Investment
(a.k.a. “Lost
Wax”)
Casting 
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Sand Casting
Cope
Core
Flask
Sprue
Runner
Parting
line
Drag
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Riser
Gate
Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Die Casting
Stationary Moving
die
die
Molten
metal
Plunger
Ejector pins
Sprue
Parting line
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Investment Casting
4-part pattern tree
Ceramic mold
(hardened slurry)
Wax pattern
is cast
Wax removed
by melting
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Molten metal
solidifies in cast
Ceramic mold is
removed
Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
SheetMetal Fabrication
 Drawing
 Punching
 Shearing
 Spinning
 Bending
 Blanking 
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Deep Metal Drawing
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Metal Spinning
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
PolyMer Processes
 Compression
Molding
 Blow Molding
 Injection molding
 Transfer Molding
 Reaction Injection
Molding (RIM) 
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Blow Molding
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Injection Molding
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Compression Molding
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Transfer Molding
Ram pressure
Ram
Heated
mold
Charge
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Sprue
Part
Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Machining Processes
Manufacturing
Processes
Deformation
Extrusion
Forging
Rolling
Bar drawing
Wire drawing
Casting
Centrifugal
Die casting
Investment
Permanent mold
Sand casting
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Sheet
Metal
Bending
Blanking
Drawing
Punching
Shearing
Spinning
Polymer
Processes
Blow molding
Casting
Compression molding
Extrusion
Injection Molding
Thermoforming
Transfer molding
Machining
Finishing
Boring
Drilling
Facing
Grinding
Milling
Planing
Turning
Sawing
ECM, EDM
Anodizing
Honing
Painting
Plating
Polishing
Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Assembly
Automated
Bonding
Brazing
Manual
Riveting
Soldering
Welding
Machining  Material Removal











Sawing ≡ using a toothed blade.
Milling ≡ form a flat surface by a rotating cutter tool.
Planing ≡ using a translating cutter as workpiece feeds.
Shaping ≡ form a translating workpiece using a stationary
cutter.
Boring ≡ increasing diameter of existing hole by rotating the
workpiece.
Drilling ≡ using a rotating bit forming a cylindrical hole.
Reaming ≡ to refine the diameter of an existing hole.
Turning ≡ form a rotating workpiece.
Facing ≡ form turning workpiece using a radially fed tool.
Grinding ≡ form a surface using an abrasive spinning wheel.
Electric Discharge Machining ≡ by means of a spark.
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Surface Finish Capability
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Finishing Processes
Manufacturing
Processes
Deformation
Extrusion
Forging
Rolling
Bar drawing
Wire drawing
Casting
Centrifugal
Die casting
Investment
Permanent mold
Sand casting
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Sheet
Metal
Bending
Blanking
Drawing
Punching
Shearing
Spinning
Polymer
Processes
Blow molding
Casting
Compression molding
Extrusion
Injection Molding
Thermoforming
Transfer molding
Machining
Finishing
Boring
Drilling
Facing
Grinding
Milling
Planing
Turning
Sawing
ECM, EDM
Anodizing
Honing
Painting
Plating
Polishing
Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Assembly
Automated
Bonding
Brazing
Manual
Riveting
Soldering
Welding
Anodizing
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Assembly  Joining
Manufacturing
Processes
Deformation
Extrusion
Forging
Rolling
Bar drawing
Wire drawing
Casting
Centrifugal
Die casting
Investment
Permanent mold
Sand casting
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Sheet
Metal
Bending
Blanking
Drawing
Punching
Shearing
Spinning
Polymer
Processes
Blow molding
Casting
Compression molding
Extrusion
Injection Molding
Thermoforming
Transfer molding
Machining
Finishing
Boring
Drilling
Facing
Grinding
Milling
Planing
Turning
Sawing
ECM, EDM
Anodizing
Honing
Painting
Plating
Polishing
Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Assembly
Automated
Bonding
Brazing
Manual
Riveting
Soldering
Welding
Gas Shielded Arc Welding
 MIG (Metal Inert Gas)
• a.k.a., Gas Metal Arc
Welding (GMAW)
• METAL Wire Electrode
CONSUMED
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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 TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas)
• a.k.a., Gas Tungsten Arc
Welding (GTAW)
• TUNGSTEN Electrode
NOT Consumed
Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Matls & Manuf Compatibility
Material
Properties
Manufacturing
Processes
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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COMPATIBLE
materials & processes
Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Material-Process Compatibility
thermosets
sand casting
investment casting
die casting
injection molding
structural foam
blow molding - extr
blow molding - inj
rotational molding
Bulk
Deformation
impact extrusion
cold heading
closed die forging
powder metal
hot extrusion
rotary swaging
Metal
Removal
machined from stock
ECM
EDM
Profile Generation
Wire EDM
Sheet
Forming
sheet metal bending
thermoforming
metal spinning
© R. J. Eggert, BSU (Based on data from Boothroyd, Dewhurst & Knight) pg 47
Normal practice
Less common
Not
applicable
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
revision
Legend
37
Thermoplastics
Refractory metals
Nickel & alloys
Titanium and alloys
Magnesium & alloys
Zinc & alloys
Copper & alloys
Aluminum & alloys
Stainless Steel
Alloy Steel
Carbon Steel
Materials Compatibility
Cast Iron
Processes
Solidification
Shape Attributes
ME 488 Design for Manufacture & Assembly
Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
9/02/03
Manufacturing Costs
Total Manufacturing Cost = Material + Tooling + Processing
raw mat’ls molds
fixtures
jigs
tool bits
TMC
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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= M
+T
labor
electricity
supplies
O/H
(deprec.)
+ P (6.1)
Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Material Cost per Part
Let
M = total materials costs (raw, bulk)
q = production quantity
Then material costs per part, cM is
cM = M/q = (cost/weight x weight) / number of parts
Let’s reorganize the variables in the equation above
cM = [cost/weight] [weight/number of parts]
= (cost/weight) (weight/part), and therefore
cM = cost/part
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Material Cost per Part (cont.)
Let
cw = material cost per unit weight, and
wp = weight of finished part
ww= weight of wasted material (the scrap)
 = Scrap-to-Useful Ratio →
[wasted material weight]/[finished weight]
= ww / wp
Then the material cost per part, cM is
cM = cw (wp + ww ) = cw (wp +  wp )
(6.2)
cM = cw wp (1+ )
(6.3)
e.g. sand casting
cM = ($1/lb)(1lb/part)(1+.05) = $1.05/part
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Tooling Cost per Part
Let
T= total cost of molds, fixtures per production run
q = number of parts per run
Then
cT= T/q
(6.4)
e.g. sand casting
cT = ($10,000/run) / (5000 parts/run) = $2.00/part
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Processing Cost per Part
Let
ct = cost per hour, (machine rate + labor)
t = cycle time (hours per part)
then
cP = ct t
(6.5)
e.g. sand casting
cP = ($30/hr) (0.3 hrs/part) = $9/part
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
TOTAL Cost per Part
Cost per part,
c=
cM
+
c = cw wp (1+ ) +
cT
+
cP
T/q
+
ct t
(6.6)
e.g. sand casting
c=
$1.05
c=
$12.05 / part
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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+
$2.00 +
$9.00
Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Example  5000 Part Run
Mfg. Process
Material
Part weight (lb)
alpha
Material cost ($/lb), cw
Tooling cost ($), T
Production quantity, q
Cycle time (hrs/part), t
Machine rate ($/hr)
Part cost ($/part)
A
Sand casting
Aluminum alloy
1
0.05
1
10000
5000
0.3
30
12.05
Alternative
B
Injection molding
ABS
3
0.01
0.25
35000
5000
0.03
100
10.7575
C
Machining
Bronze alloy
2
0.2
0.75
1500
5000
0.6
75
47.1
$45 of Bronze Part is due to Machining
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Run Volume Sensitivity
Cost ($/part)
1000
100
A ≡ Sand Casting
B ≡ Inj. Molding
10
C ≡ Machining
1
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
Production quantity
A
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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B
C
Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
How to Lower Part Cost
 In Cost Eqn Minimize the SUM of Terms
c = cw wp (1+ ) +


T/q

+
ct t

1)
2)
3)
4)
(6.6)
purchase less expensive materials,
keep our finished part weight low
produce little manufactured waste (scrap, flash, etc.)
design simple parts that require
less expensive tooling
5) make many parts per production run
(i.e., use large quantities between ReTooling)
6) choose a manufacturing process that has a
low-cycle-time & low-cost-per-hour
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
All Done for Today
Electro
Chemical
Machining
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
Engineering 11
Appendix
Bruce Mayer, PE
Registered Electrical & Mechanical Engineer
[email protected]
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
ElectroPolishing

Benefits of Electropolishing - Electropolishing produces a number of favorable
changes in a metal part which are viewed as benefits to the buyer. All of these
attributes translate into selling advantages depending upon the end use of the
product. These include:
• Brightening
• Burr removal
• Total passivation
• Oxide and tarnish removal
• Reduction in surface profile
• Removal of surface occlusions
• Increased corrosion resistance
• Increased ratio of chromium to iron
• Improved adhesion in subsequent plating
• Reduced buffing and grinding costs
• Removal of directional lines
• Radiusing of sharp edges
• Reduced surface friction
• Stress relieved surface
• Removal of hydrogen
Electropolishing produces the most spectacular results on 300 series stainless
steels. The resulting finish often appears bright, shiny, and comparable to the
mirror finishes of "bright chrome" automotive parts. On 400 series stainless
steels, the cosmetic appearance of the parts is less spectacular, but deburring,
cleaning, and passivation are comparable.
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt
ECM





What is the Electrochemical Machining Process ? The process is based on Michael
Faraday's Law of electrolysis, which is normally used in the electro plating of
metals. Electrochemical machining is the reverse of plating, the work-piece is made the
anode, which is placed in close proximity to an electrode (cathode), and a highamperage direct current is passed between them through an electrolyte, such as salt water,
flowing in the anode-cathode gap. Metal is removed by anodic dissolution and is carried
away in the form of a hydroxide in the electrolyte for recycling or recovery.
A major advantage of electrochemical machining is that it can be used as a de
burring or machining process on any metal, no matter how hard or corrosion
resistant it is, without creating any residual thermal or mechanical stress in the
work-piece.
The ECD process produces smooth, burr free edges and ECF can produce smooth, three
dimensional forms with a good surface finish in single plunge forming pass. The process is
simple to operate and offers fast production rates for difficult to conventionally machine
alloys, with low running and tooling costs.
ECM does not create any physical or thermal stress during machining and components
may be machined either before or after heat treatment. Metal removal rates are
approximately 60 cubic mm per minute per 1000 amperes DC current employed. Surface
finish may be less than 0.4 microns for some materials. Otherwise difficult to conventionally
machine alloys can be easily machined or de-burred by ECM.
Examples include the stainless steels, high performance and high temperature alloys such
as Inconel, Rene, Hastelloy, Titanium, Waspalloy and the latest generation corrosion
resistant nickel alloys such as 617 and Alloy 59.
Engineering-11: Engineering Design
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Bruce Mayer, PE
[email protected] • ENGR-11_Lec-09_Chp6_Manufacturing_Selection.ppt

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