Nanoparticle Safety Training Presentation (PowerPoint)

Report
Nanoparticle
Safety
UTSI
November 2011
Introduction - Nanoparticles
 Nanoparticles
have at least one
dimension between 1 and 100
nanometers (nm)
 They have existed in nature since time
began
Example – fine particles associated with
combustion or volcanic eruptions

Only recently (past 20 years) have they
been engineered
Introduction - Examples of
Engineered Nanoparticles


Carbons
examples - Fullerenes, nanotubes
Oxides
examples - Titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide



Metals
examples - Gold, zinc, nickel, copper
Semiconductors
examples - CdSe, CdS, InAs, InP
Polymers/organics
examples- liposomes
Introduction -Nanoparticles
 Nano-scale
materials may have different
properties as compared to the bulk
material
 For
example gold is malleable in the bulk
form but is brittle and appears red in color
at the nano-scale
Introduction – Monitoring
Measurement of most hazardous air
contaminants is done on a mass-to-volume
ratio
Example milligrams/cubic meter of air
This type of measurement is not always
acceptable when evaluating nano-scale
substances with respect to hazard
Introduction-Monitoring

Other nanoparticle characteristics, that can’t
be easily measured in the workplace, may be
more important in hazard assessment for, such
as






Surface area
Number of particles
Electrical charge of the particle
Agglomeration of particles
Particle size
Solubility
Introduction
 Nano-scale
particles haven’t been fully
evaluated with respect to toxicity,
especially for chronic exposures.
 Therefore,
it’s necessary to have an
increased level of safety to offset
uncertainties with respect to risk
Controls
 Traditional
controls such as ventilation,
respirators, gloves, etc. work well against
nanoparticles according to the National
Institute for Occupational Safety and
Health (NIOSH).
 Disposable nitrile gloves are
recommended for use with nanoparticles
in the UTSI lab
Material Safety Data Sheets
 Materials
Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are
available for various materials.
 However, the MSDS don’t address nanoscale particles of the substance
 Therefore, professional judgment must be
used when conducting hazard
evaluations with nano-scale particles.
Hazard Assessment
 Most
nano-scale dusts can act as a
mechanical irritant to the skin, and
mucous membranes (eyes, nose and
throat).
 Nanoparticles
in a liquid are not capable
of becoming airborne and therefore
present less of a hazard
Hazard Assessment - Dermal
 The
nanoparticles used at UTSI are
sandwiched between transparent
adhesive plastic tape.
 This
should make exposure essentially zero
 However,
disposable gloves are
recommended as a general precaution.
Hazard Assessment - Ingestion
 Ingestion
is highly unlikely for the nanoscale alloy particles used at UTSI
 Steps



to prevent ingestion include:
Use gloves while handling the materials
Remove gloves and wash hands following
work in the lab
Don’t allow hand-to-mouth contact (e.g.
eating, drinking) while working in the lab.
Hazard Assessment - Inhalation
 Inhalation
can be the most significant
route of entry into the body for an
airborne material.
 Particles less than 5 microns (5000 nm) in
size can penetrate deeply into the lungs
where some clearance mechanism (cilia)
are not present
 In addition, smaller particles are likely to
stay airborne for a longer period of time
Hazard Assessment - Inhalation
 It’s
unlike that any of the nano-scale alloys
used at UTSI would be inhaled through
routine handling
 However,
inhalation
it’s prudent to limit unnecessary
Hazard Assessment –
Accidental Release
 In
the event an accidental release of the
nanoparticles occurs:




Avoid breathing the dust
Use gloves to clean up the spilled material
Use wet methods (damp paper towel or
other material) to collect the spill
Avoid creating a dust
Hazard Assessment –
Accidental Release
 Clean
up materials, including personal
protective equipment, from a spill may be
discarded via regular trash
 They aren’t considered a hazardous
waste.
 It’s suggested they be placed in a sealed
plastic bag and kept damp if possible
OSHA Compliance


Labeling – Containers of the nano-particles
must be labeled
The OSHA HazCom labeled should contain:



Name of the substance (example: iron oxide)
A hazard warning (example: caution, dust may
be irritating)
Name of the responsible individual (or
company) who is familiar with the substance
OSHA Compliance

Employees who are likely to come in contact
with the material should receive training

The information in this PowerPoint
presentation should meet the requirements
for training.

Results of training must be documented,
which can be done by a quiz, sign-in sheet or
by other means.
OSHA Compliance
 Material
Safety Data Sheet should be
made available to the workers
 Employee’s
should know the location of
UTSI’s Hazard Communication Plan (also
called HazCom or Right to Know Plan)
OSHA Compliance
 Individuals
who are likely to come in
contact with the material should know:


How to detect the presence or release of a
the nanoparticles (such as visual
appearance)
Methods of self –protection (such as gloves
or the use of wet methods for clean up and
not eating food or drinking in the lab)
Europium Sulfide
 The
chemical, physical and toxicological
properties of europium have not been
thoroughly investigated and recorded.
Europium Sulfide
 Unable
to find an MSDS for Europium
Sulfide on the Internet
 However, it should behave similar to
Europium chloride.
 Information the next two pages regarding
europium were taken from:
http://www.espirareearth.com/MSDS/Europium%20
Chloride.htm
Europium Sulfide
 Europium
metals are moderately to highly
toxic.
 Symptoms of toxicity include writhing,
ataxia, labored respiration, walking on the
toes with arched back and sedation.
 Low toxicity by ingestion exposure.
 Again, exposure is extremely unlikely in the
UTSI lab and none of these symptoms are
anticipated.
Europium
 Intraperitoneal
route is highly toxic
 Subcutaneous route is poisonous to
moderately toxic.
 The production of lung and skin
granulomas after exposure to them
requires extensive protection to prevent
such exposure
Iron Oxide
 Iron
oxide is fairly innocuous and shouldn’t
present a distinct health hazard. The
primary hazard would be irritation of skin
or mucous membranes upon contact
A
copy of the MSDS can be found at:
http://fscimage.fishersci.com/msds/09765.htm
Iron-Cobalt Alloy
 The
primary health effect of an ironcobalt alloy is irritation of the skin or
mucous membranes upon contact
A
material safety data sheet for ironcobalt alloy can be found at:
http://www.alloycastproducts.com/docs/MSDS.pdf
Cobalt Alloys
 Cobalt
can be hazardous by ingestion or
inhalation.
 An MSDS for cobalt can be found at:
http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9923518
 It’s
unlike that exposure will occur in the
UTSI lab.
Summary
 The
hazards associated with nanoparticles have not been fully
characterized.
 General good lab practice, including the
use of gloves, will be enough to control
exposure in the UTSI labs
 Nanoparticles in a liquid are less
hazardous as compared to dry powder
forms.

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