Kilfoil- Paragraphing and Paragraph Development Power Point

A paragraph is:
A distinct division of written material that begins on
a new, usually indented line, consists of one or more
sentences, and typically deals with a single thought
or topic.
Three Qualities of the Academic Paragraph
1. Unity: focuses on one main idea
2. Coherence: parts are clearly related
3. Development: main idea is supported with specifics
Use topic sentences to rhetorical effect.
Topic Sentence at the Beginning: Readers will see your
point immediately; subsequent sentences will build on
your topic sentence, which serves as an introduction
Topic Sentence at the End: Specific details lead up to
the general statement of the topic sentence. Creates
suspense and a sense of cause and effect.
Topic Sentence at the Beginning and End—State your
topic sentence at the beginning and then refer to it in
a slightly different form at the end. The echo adds
Topic Sentence Implied—Use if the topic+comment is so
obvious, your readers can infer it from the content of
the paragraph.
Organization and Development: Using
spatial order
Paragraph takes a tour, beginning at one point and
moving from near to far, top to bottom, etc. Good
for descriptive paragraphs
In winter the warehouse is cold and damp. There is no
heat. The large steel doors that line the warehouse walls
stay open most of the day. In the cold months, wind, rain,
and snow blow across the floor. In the summer the
warehouse becomes an oven. Dust and sand from the
runways mix witht the toxic fumes of fork lifts, leaving a
dry, stale taste in your mouth. The high windows above the
doors are covered with a thick, black dirt that kills the sun.
The men work in shadows with the constant roar of jet
engines blowing dangerously in their ears.
Organization and Development: Using
chronological order
A series of events arranged according to time.
Soon after the spraying had ended there were
unmistakable signs that all was not well. Within two days dead
and dying fish, including many young salmon, were found along
the banks of the stream. Brook trout also appeared among the
dead fish, and along the roads and in the woods birds were
dying. All the life of the stream was stilled. Before the spraying
there had been a rich assortment of the water life that forms
the food of salmon and trout — caddis fly larvae, living in
loosely fitting protective cases of leaves, stems or gravel
cemented together with saliva, stonefly nymphs clinging to rocks
in the swirling currents, and the wormlike larvae of blackflies
edging the stones under riffles or where the stream spills over
steeply slanting rocks. But now the stream insects were dead,
killed by DDT, and there was nothing for a young salmon to eat.
Organization and Development: Using
logical Order
Details arranged to reflect certain logical relationships between parts of the
Logical Patterns of Development:
Illustration: supporting main idea with concrete examples and/or good
Definition: using a paragraph to define a concept or term
Comparison and Contrast: compare and contrast various aspects of the
topic or compare and contrast the topic with something else
Cause and Effect: explore cause and effect relationship associated with
your topic
Problems and Solutions: open with a statement of a problem and then
offers a solution in the sentences that follow
Analogies: make a comparison that explains an unfamiliar thing in terms
of a familiar one
The tragic hero is typically on top of the wheel of
fortune, half-way between human society on the
ground and the something greater in the sky.
Prometheus, Adam, and Christ hang between heaven
and earth, between a world of paradisal freedom
and a world of bondage. Tragic heroes are so much
the highest points in their human landscape that they
seem the inevitable conductors of the power about
them, great trees more likely to be struck by lightning
than a clump of grass. Conductors may of course be
instruments as well as victims of the divine lightning:
Milton's Samson destroys the Philistine temple with
himself, and Hamlet nearly exterminates the Danish
court in his own fall.
A Well-Developed Paragraph…
Holds reader’s interest and explores topic fully; uses
examples, evidence, details to add vibrancy and
specificity to the paragraph.
No such thing as “human nature” compels people to behave, think, or react in
certain ways. Rather, from the time of our infancy to our death, we are constantly
being taught, by the society that surrounds us, the customs, norms, and mores of our
distinct culture. Everything in culture is learned, not genetically transmitted.
Imagine a child in Ecuador dancing to salsa music at a warm family gathering,
while a child in the United States is decorating a Christmas tree with bright, shiny
red ornaments. Both of these children are taking part in their country’s cultures. It is
not by instinct that one child knows how to dance to salsa music, nor is it by instinct
that the other child knows how to decorate the tree. No such thing as “human
nature” compels people to behave, think, or react in certain ways. Rather, from the
time of our infancy to our death, we are constantly being taught, by the society that
surrounds us, the customs, norms, and mores of our distinct culture. A majority of
people feel that the evil in human beings is “human nature.” However, the Tasaday,
a “Stone Age” tribe discovered not long ago in the Philippines, do not even have
equivalents in their language for the words hatred, competition, acquisitiveness,
aggression, and greed. Such examples suggest that everything in culture is learned,
not genetically transmitted.

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