Inquiry Project Environmentally Friendly Cleaning Lisa Mueller Products History of the Environmental Movement Started in the early 1800’s American Proponents of the movement: Henry David Thoreau and John Muir 75 Years Later-United States started considering the damage done to the environment and the people who inhabited it 1962-American Marine biologist named Rachel Carson wrote the book, Silent Spring, outlining the damaging effects of pesticides to the environment. -exposed the hazards of using the chemical DDT, a substance that is now banned. History of the Environmental Movement Part II 1970’s – Environmental Protection Agency created to work with and educate the public. Congress signed the Clean Air Act which was amended to include regulations for toxic substances that affect the water supply. 1972-United Nations established a worldwide environmental committee. United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) History of the Environmental Movement 21st Century- 21 substances were banned from use. Environmental Science-new branch of scientific research Environmental Medicine-new field which incorporates environmental science, chemistry and medicine. Why I Should Use Environmental Friendly Cleaners They are safer for you. No long term exposure to chemicals that can lead to serious health conditions. They are safer for the family including children and pets. They are safer for the environment. They are cheaper for you if you make your own products because they can be made with basic household ingredients. They save space because you only need a small range of ingredients to cover every cleaning job in your house. Why are Mass Produced Cleaners Bad? They contribute to the indoor pollution which is due in large part to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) The indoor air can be from 2 or more than 100 times higher than outdoors, according to the United States, EPA. Products that contain VOCs. VOCs can be harmful. Why are Mass Produced Cleaners Bad? Air Fresheners and Aerosol Sprays Study-New Scientist published in 1999. Mothers experience 25% more headaches; 19% more likely to suffer from depression; Infants under 6 months experience 30% more ear infections and have a 22% higher incidences of diarrhea. Long-term Exposure-nervous system damage and maybe carcinogenic, skin and eye irritants “Volatile” on label- need to ventilate the area you are working in to reduce harmful inhalation Why are Mass Produced Cleaners Bad? They have toxic ingredients. I. Chlorine Is found in some multipurpose cleaners, liquid bleaches, toilet bowl cleaners, disinfectants, and mold inhibitors. It’s a general biocide. It is harmful to humans. It harms the environment. Clean Air Act lists it as a hazardous air pollutant. They have toxic ingredients. Continued II Detergents Are used in heavy duty cleaning products that deal with food, grease and oily residue such as dishwashing and laundry products. Contains acids, enzymes, surfactants, bleaching agents, caustics and optical brighteners. It is harmful to humans. They have toxic ingredients.Continued III. Formaldehyde Used as a binder and preservative in hundreds of household products including paper products such as toilet rolls and tissues. Also added as a disinfectant in some cleaners. It is one of the most common indoor air pollutants. It is harmful to humans. It is harmful to the environment. The levels of formaldehyde fumes increase with humidity and temperature. It is in the volatile organic compounds (VOC) group. They have toxic ingredients Continued IV. Fragrance Made from a cocktail of petrochemicals. Manufacturers don’t have to disclose what ingredients they use. They can harm humans. When inhaled they can cause immediate symptoms-sneezing, itchy eyes, headaches, nausea, and wheezing. Chronic symptoms from exposure include asthma, multiple chemical sensitivity, lethargy, and short-term memory loss. They are toxic ingredients Continued V. Triclosan Is one of the most widely used antibacterial and antifungal ingredient in household cleaners, and personal care products. Located in hand or dishwashing soaps. Also in food storage boxes and so called “antibacterial” cutting boards. It is harmful because its absorbed through the skin and accumulates in the body. It has been found in fish tissue and human breast milk. What Materials I Need to Make My Own Environmentally Friendly Cleaning Products Baking Soda-can be used to clean almost anything, including countertops, sinks, the bathtub, and stove. It is non-toxic to humans and safe to use on most surfaces and fabrics. Borax-is a deodorizer with antibacterial properties. It is a useful disinfectant and all-purpose cleaner. It is harmful to humans and pets if ingested. Therefore, it should be kept out of reach. It can be a skin and respiratory irritant. What Materials I Need to Make My Own Environmentally Friendly Cleaning Products Hydrogen Peroxide-It is a weak acid. It is recommended to use the 3% strength for cleaning purposes. It is useful in bleaching stains from white garments or removing stains and spills from light-colored carpets and furnishings. It is a disinfectant with some antibacterial properties which makes it good for sanitizing surfaces such as countertops, cutting boards, light switches and toilet flush handles. It can irritate the skin and mucous membranes. Also it can bleach clothes and other surfaces. What Materials I Need to Make My Own Environmentally Friendly Cleaning Products Lemons-acidic so they will cut through greasy surfaces; antibacterial effects make it perfect for sanitizing cutting boards and other surfaces such as countertops or stoves. It has a mild bleaching power so it can remove stains on clothes. It is safe for humans. Liquid Castile soap-it is a great base for all-purpose cream cleaners; use in place of dishwashing liquids; used to clean sinks, the stove, tiles, and countertops. Safe for humans What Materials I Need to Make My Own Environmentally Friendly Cleaning Products Soda Crystals- (sodium carbonate) contain no phosphates, enzymes, or bleach; remove grease, red wine, grass stains, blood, tea and coffee stains and ground-in dirt. Also can be used on stoves, tiles and to clean the toilet. Use with rubber gloves and keep away from your face and eyes. White Vinegar-it’s an effective multi-purpose cleaner when used with 50/50 mix of cold water that dissolves greasy marks, adds shine to surfaces and removes residue of other cleaning products. It is safe for humans. What Materials I Need to Make My Own Environmentally Friendly Cleaning Products Olive Oil-is a good ingredient for wooden furniture and floor polishes; it can clean and shine stainless steel; polish leather shoes. It is safe for humans. Salt-it “pulls” stains from fabrics and carpets; rubbing tea and coffee stains with salt will remove them; use for oven and stove spills; can be used in combination with baking soda and white vinegar to unblock drains. It is safe for humans. What Materials I Need to Make My Own Environmentally Friendly Cleaning Products Club Soda-it removes stains and it cleans porcelain sinks, counter tops, fixtures and even the inside of your refrigerator. It is safe enough to drink! Also you can use the flat soda water to water your house plants. Essential Oils-are obtained from the fruits, leaves, flowers, and resins of plants. There are some that are antibacterial, anti-fungal, or antiseptic. Lemon, tea tree, and eucalyptus are antibacterial. A few drops are okay for the family environment but large quantities can be toxic. What Materials I Need to Make Environmentally Friendly Cleaning Products-Checklist of Helpful Items to Gather Before Making Your Own Cleaning Products Ingredients Useful Tools Ingredients Useful Tools Vinegar Funnel Cloves Toothbrush Cinnamon Blender or food processor Garlic cloves Pot for boiling ingredients Hot pepper sauce Clean glass jars with lids Olive oil Empty plastic containers with tight-fitting lids Borax Essential oils (optional for fragrance) Lemons Lemon Juice Measuring spoons Measuring cup Table salt and coarse Empty spray bottles salt Baking soda Bowls Club soda Mixing spoons Cornstarch Bucket Cream of tartar Soft cloth Tap water References How to Go Green: Why to Go Green. (2007, February 9). Retrieved February 9, 2012, from TreeHugger: http://www.treehugger.com/htgg/how-to-go-green-why-to-go-green.html Elizabeth B. Goldsmith, P., & Sheldon, B. (2009). Green Cleaning for Dummies. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley. Findley, M., & Formichelli, L. (2005). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Cleaning. Indianapolis, IN: Alpha Books. Guide, G. (2003, March 19). How to clean your house without hurting the planet. Retrieved February 9, 2012, from Grist: http://grist.org/living/possessions-cleaning/ Lory, C. S. (2005, May). Cleaning for home health. Retrieved February 9, 2012, from Inform Strategies for a better environment: www.informinc.org Strauss, R. (2009). Household Cleaning: self-sufficiency. New York: Skyhorse . Some Recipes to Get Started All Purpose Cleaners Mix ½ cup of white vinegar with ½ cup of table salt. Stir until salt is dissolved. Use in spray bottle or on a sponge. Mix 1 ½ cups of white vinegar with 1 ½ cups of water. Us in a spray bottle on any surface. Dishwasher Detergent Place 1 Tbsp. of Borax and 1 tbsp. of baking soda in a sealed container and shake well. This amount can be used for a full load of dishes. Fill the rinse compartment with white vinegar. Mix well. Use only 2 Tbsp. in the dishwasher. If you don’t use vinegar, cloudiness or powdery residue might appear on the clean items. Some Recipes to Get Started Metal Polish To remove tarnished surfaces on aluminum, brass bronze, and copper, dip a half of a fresh lemon in a shallow dish of baking soda. Rub the dipped lemon all over surface to get rid of tarnish and improve shine. Tile Cleaner Make a paste out of 2 cups of baking soda and 1 cup of water. Mix until it is the consistency of a cream. Rub over tile and grout with a soft cloth. Some Recipes to Get You Started Mirror & Window Cleaner Mix 6 Tbsp. of vinegar with 2 cups of water in a spray bottle. If you aren’t sensitive to the smell you can eliminate the water even though the smell dissipates in about ten minutes. You can add two drops of essential oil for the smell. Wood Floor Polish Mix a bucket of 2 cups of olive oil and 2 cups of vinegar. Mix well and apply to floor with soft cloth or mop. Toilet Bowl Cleaner Mix 2 cups of borax with ½ cup of lemon juice and pour into toilet bowl. Let it sit for 20 minutes. Scrub sides with toilet brush, and flush to clear bowl when finished.