Environmental Pollution

Types of Environmental Pollution
Water Pollution: Introduction- Water Quality Standards, Sources of
Water Pollution, Classification of Water Pollutants, Effects of Water
Pollutants, Eutrophication.
Air Pollution: Composition of air, Structure of atmosphere, Ambient
air quality standards,
Classification of air pollutants, Sources of common air pollutants like
SPM, No x , Natural & Anthropogenic Sources, Effects of Common air
Land and Noise Pollution: Lithosphere, Land uses, Causes of land
degradation, Sources of Noise pollution, Effects of noise pollution,
Effects of Noise pollution
Current Environmental Global Issues: Global Warming, Green House
Effect, Acid Rain,
Depletion of Ozone layer.
Important Questions
Give Water Quality Standards as per BIS.
Enlist the parameters of water quality standards for drinking water in India and state their
What is potable water? Describe the different water pollutants which make water unfit for
What are pathogens ?
Enlist types of Environmental Pollution. What are effects of water pollutants on Environment
and human?
Write explanatory notes
Indian Drinking Water Standards
What are causes of Environmental Pollution . List all Environmental Pollution and their
sources in detail.
Define water pollution and enlist various sources of water pollution. Explain any one in detail.
Describe sources of water pollution.
Define Eutrophication, its causes and effects.
Explain Eutrophication. Highlight causes and effects of Eutrophication on lake.
Enlist and explain any two sources of water pollution
Give the classification of water quality parameters and explain any two.
“Discharging used water in river is not solution of pollution” Explain in detail
What are different types of Pollutions? Describe the causes and effects of Eutrophication
Environmental Pollution
 Environmental Pollution can be define as any undesirable
change in physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of
any component of the environment i.e. air, water, soil which can
cause harmful effects on various forms of life or property.
 Pollution: The term pollution can be define as influence of any
substance causing nuisance, harmful effects, and uneasiness to
the organisms
 Pollutant:- Any substance causing Nuisance or harmful effects
or uneasiness to the organisms than that particular substance
may be called as the pollutant.
 Types of Environmental Pollution:
 Pollution can be broadly classified as according to where it took
 Thus environmental pollution can be classified as
Classification of Pollutants:
 Depending upon their existence in nature.
 (a) Quantitative Pollutants: They normally
occur in
environment but acquires the status of a pollutant when their
concentration increases due to unmindful human activities. E.g.
(b) Qualitative Pollutants: Do not naturally occur in the
environment but are added by man e.g. Insecticides.
Depending upon the form in which they persist after being
released into atmosphere.
(a) Primary Pollutants: Those which are emitted from the
source and persist in the form in which they were added to the
environment e.g. ash, dust, hydrocarbon etc.
(b) Secondary Pollutants: Those which are formed from
primary pollutants. E.g. SO3, ketones, aldehydes, PAN
Classification of Pollutants
 Depending upon the way in which they are removed/ accumulated
in the environment.
(a) Biodegradable: Those which can be degraded/ decomposed by
living organisms.
E.g. Wood, Sewage, Paper, Cardboard, Garbage.
(b) Non-Biodegradable: Those which are not degraded/
decomposed by living organisms.
E.g. DDT, Plastic, Insecticides
Depending upon their Source:
(a) Natural: Those which are released from natural source.
E.g. Volcanic eruptions, wind borne dust, release of H2S from decay
of organic matter.
(b) Man-Made/ Anthropogenic: Those which are released due to
human activities (Commercial, Industrial etc.)
Types of Pollution
 Water Pollution
 Air Pollution
 Land Pollution
 Noise Pollution
Water Pollution
 Water Pollution: Introduction- Water Quality Standards,
Sources of Water Pollution, Classification of Water Pollutants,
Effects of Water Pollutants, Eutrophication.
Water Pollution
 Water Pollution can be defined as alteration in physical, chemical,
or biological characteristics of water through natural or human
activities and making it unsuitable for its designated use.
 Fresh Water present on the earth surface is put to many uses. It is
used for drinking, domestic and municipal uses, agricultural,
irrigation, industries, navigation, recreation. The used water
becomes contaminated and is called waste water.
Water Quality Standards
 The definition of water quality depends on the intended use of
the water which may be either human consumption or it may be
for industries, irrigation, recreation etc.
 Depending upon the proposed use of water, certain water
quality criteria are established and based on these criteria
quality standards are specified by health and other regulation
 Different types of water require different level of water purity.
 Drinking water requires highest standard of purity where as
water of lower quality
IS: 10500
IS: 10500
IS: 10500
Quality of Water
 Parameters of water which are required to be tested for
determining the quality of water can be divided into
 Physical
 Chemical
 Microbiological
Physical Parameters
It includes
 Turbidity
 Color
 Odour
 Taste
 Temperature
 It is the large amount of suspended matter
such as clay, silt, some other finely divided
organic matter present in the water, it will
appear to be muddy or cloudy or turbid in
 Turbidity is measured by turbid meter and
is expressed in mg/l
 Dissolved
organic matter from
decaying vegetation or some inorganic
materials such as colored soils, may
impart color to water. The excessive
growth of algae also may impart color
to the water.. The presence of color in
water is not objectionable from health
point of view, but may spoil the color
of clothes being washed in it
 Color
of water is measured by
platinum cobalt scale It should not
exceed 20 and should be less than 10
Taste And Odour
 The dissolved organic matter, inorganic salts, or dissolved
gases may impart tastes and odours to the water, which
generally occurs together.
 Taste and odour may be due to presence of dissolved gases
such as H2S, CH4, CO2, O2, etc. Some mineral substances like
Iron, sulphates, may impart taste to water.
 For drinking purpose water should not contain any
undesirable taste and odour.
 Taste of water should be agreeable to the consumers
 And odour of water is measured in terms of threshold odour
 For public supplies threshold odour no should be 1 and
should not exceed 3.
 Temperature of water has no practical significance however
temperature of water should be above 10 0 c while temperature
above 25 0C are considered as objectionable.
Chemical Parameters
 Solids ( Suspended, Dissolved, Volatile)
 Hardness
 Chlorides
 pH
 Dissolved gases like Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Hydrogen
 Nitrogen compound like Nitrates, Nitrites.
 Metals and other in organic substance like fluoride, iron,
and manganese, lead, Arsenic, Iodide, Cadmium.
Microbiological Parameters
 It Includes various microorganisms i.e. bacteria, virus,
protozoa, worms, present in water it may be pathogenic or non
Sources of Water Pollution
 Following are the two major sources of water pollution:
 Point Source: They are the source of pollution from single
Identified location.
e.g. Discharge from domestic, commercial, and small industrial
water into sewer.
Waste water generated from industries e.g. dye, textile, pulp and
paper, oil refineries, food processing etc. are major sources of
water pollution. It has organic and in organic content.
Non-Point Source (Diffused Source):
Those sources whose location cannot be easily Identified are
called diffused sources.
The pollutants are scattered on the ground ultimately reach the
water source and cause water pollution.
Air Pollution gets dissolved in rain water and contaminate the
ground water as well as surface water source.
Sources of Water Pollution
 Most of Water Pollution is man made It may also occur naturally
by addition of soil particles through erosion animal wastes and
leaching of minerals from rocks
 The sources of water pollution can be classified as
 Municipal Waste Water
 Industrial Waste
 Inorganic Pollutants
 Organic Pollutants
 Agricultural Wastes
 Marine Pollution
 Thermal pollution
Municipal Waste Water
 Municipal waste water includes domestic discharges and
commercial and industrial waste water collected in public
sewerage system. The sewage contain human and industrial
waste water collected in public sewerage system. The sewage
contain human and animal excreta, food residue, detergents,
and other wastes. It always contain organic matter, bacteria,
and other biological Pollutants.
Municipal Waste Water
Industrial Waste
 The major source of water pollution is the waste water
discharged from industries and commercial bodies, these
industries are chemical, metallurgical, food processing
industries, textile, paper industries. They discharge several
organic and inorganic pollutants. That prove highly toxic to
living beings.
Industrial Waste
Inorganic Pollutants
 They include fine particles of different metals, chlorides,
sulphates, oxides of iron, cadmium, acids and alkalies.
Inorganic Pollutants
Organic Pollutants
 They Include oils, fats, phenols, organic acids grease and several
other organic compounds
Agricultural Wastes
 Chemical fertilizers and pesticides have
become essential for present day high
yielding crops. Consequently , they have
become a potential source of water
pollution. These fertilizers contain major
phosphorous, and potassium. Excess
fertilizers may reach the ground water by
leaching or may be mixed with surface
water of rivers, lakes and ponds by runoff
and drainage.
Marine Pollution
 Ocean are the final sink of all natural and manmade pollutants.
Rivers discharge their pollutants into the sea. The sewage and
garbage of costal cities are also dumped into the sea. The other
sources include, discharge of oils, grease, detergents, and
radioactive wastes from ships.
Marine Pollution
Thermal Pollution
 Thermal Pollution of water is caused by the rise in temperature
of water. The main source of thermal pollution are the thermal
and nuclear power plants. The power generating plants use
water as coolants and release hot water into the original
source. Sudden rise in temperature kills fish and other aquatic
Thermal Pollution
Underground Water Pollution
 Underground water was considered fairly safe source of water
but in India the ground water is threatened with contamination
due to seepage from industrial and municipal waste and
effluents, sewage and agricultural runoff. The ground water also
gets polluted by leaching of salts and minerals due to overuse of
ground water source.
Underground Water Pollution
Effects of Water Pollutants
 Sediments:- Excessive amount of soil
particles carried by flowing water,
when there is severe soil erosion.
channels, destroy, aquatic life.
 Oxygen demanding organic waste:-
Animal waste, plant debris, waste
from paper mill and food processing
facilities bacteria can decompose
organic waste and in the process they
deplete oxygen and can cause death of
fish and other aquatic life.
 Infectious microorganisms:- Parasitic worms, viruses and
bacteria from infected organisms as well as human and animal
wastes are responsible for water borne diseases that can kill
thousand of Individuals.
 Organic Compounds:- Substances like fats oil, grease as well as
some organic acids from industrial effluents can cause many
health problems in humans and can disturb aquatic life
Infectious Microorganisms
 Inorganic Nutrients: Substances
like nitrogen and
phosphorous from animal waste,
plant residues and fertilizers runoff.
eutrophication and can effect infant
and unborn babies ( Blue baby
 Inorganic Chemicals:- Acids salts
and heavy metals, such as lead and
mercury from industrial effluents,
surface runoff and house hold
cleaning agents. They make water
unfit for drinking, or irrigation, harm
fish and other aquatic life.
 Radioactive Substances:- Waste
from nuclear power plants, nuclear
weapons, and the mining of
radioactive substances can cause
cancer, birth defects etc.
 Thermal Pollution:- Hot Water
from industrial processes may
lower oxygen levels and make
aquatic organisms more vulnerable
to disease, parasites and toxic
Thermal Pollution
 Definition:- Eutophication is an increase in chemical nutrients,
typically compound containing nitrogen or phosphorous in an
ecosystem, and it may occur on land or in water
 However, Eutrophication also means excessive plant growth.
Eutrophication Process
A lake or pond contains minimal level of nutrients
and is supports small population of aquatic
organisms. Eutrophication is the enrichment
of such nutrients like phosphorous and
nitrogen. It may occur when fertilizers runoff
during discharge of large amount of nutrients
into the water body.
 In
Eutrophic lakes there is increased
photosynthetic activity which results in excess
growth of algae. When the excessive number
of algae die, they are deposited on the bottom
of the lake and are decomposed. Since this
process uses lots of dissolved oxygen some
fish species die.
 Eutrophication is undesirable, since it affects
aquatic life.
 Eutrophication generally promotes excessive plant growth and
decay, or favors certain species over the other, and is likely to
cause reduction in water quality.
 In Aquatic environment enhanced growth disturbs normal
functioning of the ecosystem causing a variety of problems such
as lack of oxygen in the water , needed for fish to survive. The
water becomes cloudy, colored, a shade of green, yellow, brown
or red. Human society is impacted as well
 Eutrophication decreases the resource value of rivers, lakes and
estuaries such that recreation , fishing, hunting and aesthetic
enjoyment are hindered health related problem can occur
where eutrophication condition interfere with drinking.
Types of Eutrophication
 Eutrophication is mainly of two types:
 (1) Natural Eutrophication:
 The natural eutrophication is a normal process. The process of
lake aging characterized by nutrient enrichment is called
 It permits production of algal booms, aquatic weeds,
zooplanktons and fish.
 (2) Cultural Eutrophication:
 Whenever nutrients come from sewage treatment plants, poor
farming practices, urban runoff and certain other human activities
which are responsible for the addition of nitrogen, and
to lakes and streams. The accelerated
eutrophication caused by humans is called cultural
Effects of Eutrophication
 Eutrophication causes several physical, chemical, and biological changes
which considerably deteriorates the water quality. It causes the following
 During Eutrophication, algal boom release toxic chemicals which kills fish,
birds, and other aquatic animals causing the water to stink.
 Decomposition of algal boom leads to oxygen depletion in water. Thus,
with a high CO2 level and poor oxygen supply, aquatic organisms begin to
die and clean water turns into stinking drain.
 If the lake is a source of drinking water, it value may be greatly impaired
because of phytoplankton rapidly clog water filters and may cause a few
 Many pathogenic microbes, viruses, protozoa and bacteria etc. grow on
sewage products under anaerobic conditions. It results into spread of total
water-borne disease, such as polio, dysentery, typhoid and hepatitis.
Controlling of Eutrophication
 The main cause for the production of algae are the available nutrients. If the
supplies of such nutrients are restricted , growth will reduce.
 The steps to control eutrophication are
 Recycling of nutrients through harvest.
 Removal of algae blooms by dredging.
 Applying algaecides like chlorine, copper sulphates on water bodies.
 The wastewater must be treated before its discharge into water stream to
limit the nutrient value.
 Directly discharging waste water away from lakes to river and the sea.
 Organic Farming- Research from the National Academy of Science found
that organically fertilizing fields, significantly reduce harmful nitrate
Removing Algae
Activity- Case Study
Write a Report on Minamata Disease in Japan due to
Methyl mercury Poisoning caused by eating
contaminated fish.
Give Reason for Validity
1- Sabarmati river is one of the polluted rivers of Gujarat.
2- Salinity and water logging is a problem of South Gujarat.
3- Dilution is not a solution to pollution.
4- Well water near sea is contaminated.
5- Water Harvesting is made compulsory in metro cities.

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