ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION UNIT-IV Syllabus 1. Types of Environmental Pollution 2. Water Pollution: Introduction- Water Quality Standards, Sources of Water Pollution, Classification of Water Pollutants, Effects of Water Pollutants, Eutrophication. 3. Air Pollution: Composition of air, Structure of atmosphere, Ambient air quality standards, 4. Classification of air pollutants, Sources of common air pollutants like SPM, No x , Natural & Anthropogenic Sources, Effects of Common air Pollutants. 5. Land and Noise Pollution: Lithosphere, Land uses, Causes of land degradation, Sources of Noise pollution, Effects of noise pollution, Effects of Noise pollution 6. Current Environmental Global Issues: Global Warming, Green House Effect, Acid Rain, 7. Depletion of Ozone layer. Important Questions Give Water Quality Standards as per BIS. Enlist the parameters of water quality standards for drinking water in India and state their significance. What is potable water? Describe the different water pollutants which make water unfit for drinking. What are pathogens ? Enlist types of Environmental Pollution. What are effects of water pollutants on Environment and human? Write explanatory notes Indian Drinking Water Standards What are causes of Environmental Pollution . List all Environmental Pollution and their sources in detail. Define water pollution and enlist various sources of water pollution. Explain any one in detail. Describe sources of water pollution. Define Eutrophication, its causes and effects. Explain Eutrophication. Highlight causes and effects of Eutrophication on lake. Enlist and explain any two sources of water pollution Give the classification of water quality parameters and explain any two. “Discharging used water in river is not solution of pollution” Explain in detail What are different types of Pollutions? Describe the causes and effects of Eutrophication Environmental Pollution Environmental Pollution can be define as any undesirable change in physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of any component of the environment i.e. air, water, soil which can cause harmful effects on various forms of life or property. Pollution: The term pollution can be define as influence of any substance causing nuisance, harmful effects, and uneasiness to the organisms Pollutant:- Any substance causing Nuisance or harmful effects or uneasiness to the organisms than that particular substance may be called as the pollutant. Types of Environmental Pollution: Pollution can be broadly classified as according to where it took place. Thus environmental pollution can be classified as Classification of Pollutants: Depending upon their existence in nature. (a) Quantitative Pollutants: They normally occur in environment but acquires the status of a pollutant when their concentration increases due to unmindful human activities. E.g. CO2 (b) Qualitative Pollutants: Do not naturally occur in the environment but are added by man e.g. Insecticides. Depending upon the form in which they persist after being released into atmosphere. (a) Primary Pollutants: Those which are emitted from the source and persist in the form in which they were added to the environment e.g. ash, dust, hydrocarbon etc. (b) Secondary Pollutants: Those which are formed from primary pollutants. E.g. SO3, ketones, aldehydes, PAN Classification of Pollutants Depending upon the way in which they are removed/ accumulated in the environment. (a) Biodegradable: Those which can be degraded/ decomposed by living organisms. E.g. Wood, Sewage, Paper, Cardboard, Garbage. (b) Non-Biodegradable: Those which are not degraded/ decomposed by living organisms. E.g. DDT, Plastic, Insecticides Depending upon their Source: (a) Natural: Those which are released from natural source. E.g. Volcanic eruptions, wind borne dust, release of H2S from decay of organic matter. (b) Man-Made/ Anthropogenic: Those which are released due to human activities (Commercial, Industrial etc.) Types of Pollution Water Pollution Air Pollution Land Pollution Noise Pollution Water Pollution Water Pollution: Introduction- Water Quality Standards, Sources of Water Pollution, Classification of Water Pollutants, Effects of Water Pollutants, Eutrophication. Water Pollution Water Pollution can be defined as alteration in physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of water through natural or human activities and making it unsuitable for its designated use. Fresh Water present on the earth surface is put to many uses. It is used for drinking, domestic and municipal uses, agricultural, irrigation, industries, navigation, recreation. The used water becomes contaminated and is called waste water. Water Quality Standards The definition of water quality depends on the intended use of the water which may be either human consumption or it may be for industries, irrigation, recreation etc. Depending upon the proposed use of water, certain water quality criteria are established and based on these criteria quality standards are specified by health and other regulation agencies. Different types of water require different level of water purity. Drinking water requires highest standard of purity where as water of lower quality INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR DRINKING WATER IS: 10500 INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR DRINKING WATER IS: 10500 INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR DRINKING WATER IS: 10500 INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR DRINKING WATER IS: 10500 INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR DRINKING WATER IS: 10500 INDIAN STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR DRINKING WATER IS: 10500 Quality of Water Parameters of water which are required to be tested for determining the quality of water can be divided into Physical Chemical Microbiological Physical Parameters It includes Turbidity Color Odour Taste Temperature Turbidity It is the large amount of suspended matter such as clay, silt, some other finely divided organic matter present in the water, it will appear to be muddy or cloudy or turbid in appearance. Turbidity is measured by turbid meter and is expressed in mg/l Color Dissolved organic matter from decaying vegetation or some inorganic materials such as colored soils, may impart color to water. The excessive growth of algae also may impart color to the water.. The presence of color in water is not objectionable from health point of view, but may spoil the color of clothes being washed in it Color of water is measured by platinum cobalt scale It should not exceed 20 and should be less than 10 Taste And Odour The dissolved organic matter, inorganic salts, or dissolved gases may impart tastes and odours to the water, which generally occurs together. Taste and odour may be due to presence of dissolved gases such as H2S, CH4, CO2, O2, etc. Some mineral substances like Iron, sulphates, may impart taste to water. For drinking purpose water should not contain any undesirable taste and odour. Taste of water should be agreeable to the consumers And odour of water is measured in terms of threshold odour number. For public supplies threshold odour no should be 1 and should not exceed 3. Temperature Temperature of water has no practical significance however temperature of water should be above 10 0 c while temperature above 25 0C are considered as objectionable. Chemical Parameters Solids ( Suspended, Dissolved, Volatile) Hardness Chlorides pH Dissolved gases like Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, Hydrogen sulphide Nitrogen compound like Nitrates, Nitrites. Metals and other in organic substance like fluoride, iron, and manganese, lead, Arsenic, Iodide, Cadmium. Microbiological Parameters It Includes various microorganisms i.e. bacteria, virus, protozoa, worms, present in water it may be pathogenic or non pathogenic Sources of Water Pollution Following are the two major sources of water pollution: Point Source: They are the source of pollution from single Identified location. e.g. Discharge from domestic, commercial, and small industrial water into sewer. Waste water generated from industries e.g. dye, textile, pulp and paper, oil refineries, food processing etc. are major sources of water pollution. It has organic and in organic content. Non-Point Source (Diffused Source): Those sources whose location cannot be easily Identified are called diffused sources. The pollutants are scattered on the ground ultimately reach the water source and cause water pollution. Air Pollution gets dissolved in rain water and contaminate the ground water as well as surface water source. Sources of Water Pollution Most of Water Pollution is man made It may also occur naturally by addition of soil particles through erosion animal wastes and leaching of minerals from rocks The sources of water pollution can be classified as Municipal Waste Water Industrial Waste Inorganic Pollutants Organic Pollutants Agricultural Wastes Marine Pollution Thermal pollution Municipal Waste Water Municipal waste water includes domestic discharges and commercial and industrial waste water collected in public sewerage system. The sewage contain human and industrial waste water collected in public sewerage system. The sewage contain human and animal excreta, food residue, detergents, and other wastes. It always contain organic matter, bacteria, and other biological Pollutants. Municipal Waste Water Industrial Waste The major source of water pollution is the waste water discharged from industries and commercial bodies, these industries are chemical, metallurgical, food processing industries, textile, paper industries. They discharge several organic and inorganic pollutants. That prove highly toxic to living beings. Industrial Waste Inorganic Pollutants They include fine particles of different metals, chlorides, sulphates, oxides of iron, cadmium, acids and alkalies. Inorganic Pollutants Organic Pollutants They Include oils, fats, phenols, organic acids grease and several other organic compounds Agricultural Wastes Chemical fertilizers and pesticides have become essential for present day high yielding crops. Consequently , they have become a potential source of water pollution. These fertilizers contain major plants nutrients mainly nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium. Excess fertilizers may reach the ground water by leaching or may be mixed with surface water of rivers, lakes and ponds by runoff and drainage. Marine Pollution Ocean are the final sink of all natural and manmade pollutants. Rivers discharge their pollutants into the sea. The sewage and garbage of costal cities are also dumped into the sea. The other sources include, discharge of oils, grease, detergents, and radioactive wastes from ships. Marine Pollution Thermal Pollution Thermal Pollution of water is caused by the rise in temperature of water. The main source of thermal pollution are the thermal and nuclear power plants. The power generating plants use water as coolants and release hot water into the original source. Sudden rise in temperature kills fish and other aquatic animals. Thermal Pollution Underground Water Pollution Underground water was considered fairly safe source of water but in India the ground water is threatened with contamination due to seepage from industrial and municipal waste and effluents, sewage and agricultural runoff. The ground water also gets polluted by leaching of salts and minerals due to overuse of ground water source. Underground Water Pollution Effects of Water Pollutants Sediments:- Excessive amount of soil particles carried by flowing water, when there is severe soil erosion. Sediments clog reservoir and channels, destroy, aquatic life. Oxygen demanding organic waste:- Animal waste, plant debris, waste from paper mill and food processing facilities bacteria can decompose organic waste and in the process they deplete oxygen and can cause death of fish and other aquatic life. Infectious microorganisms:- Parasitic worms, viruses and bacteria from infected organisms as well as human and animal wastes are responsible for water borne diseases that can kill thousand of Individuals. Organic Compounds:- Substances like fats oil, grease as well as some organic acids from industrial effluents can cause many health problems in humans and can disturb aquatic life Infectious Microorganisms Inorganic Nutrients: Substances like nitrogen and phosphorous from animal waste, plant residues and fertilizers runoff. These nutrients can cause eutrophication and can effect infant and unborn babies ( Blue baby syndrome) Inorganic Chemicals:- Acids salts and heavy metals, such as lead and mercury from industrial effluents, surface runoff and house hold cleaning agents. They make water unfit for drinking, or irrigation, harm fish and other aquatic life. Radioactive Substances:- Waste from nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons, and the mining of radioactive substances can cause cancer, birth defects etc. Thermal Pollution:- Hot Water from industrial processes may lower oxygen levels and make aquatic organisms more vulnerable to disease, parasites and toxic chemicals. Thermal Pollution Eutrophication Definition:- Eutophication is an increase in chemical nutrients, typically compound containing nitrogen or phosphorous in an ecosystem, and it may occur on land or in water However, Eutrophication also means excessive plant growth. Eutrophication Eutrophication Process A lake or pond contains minimal level of nutrients and is supports small population of aquatic organisms. Eutrophication is the enrichment of such nutrients like phosphorous and nitrogen. It may occur when fertilizers runoff during discharge of large amount of nutrients into the water body. In Eutrophic lakes there is increased photosynthetic activity which results in excess growth of algae. When the excessive number of algae die, they are deposited on the bottom of the lake and are decomposed. Since this process uses lots of dissolved oxygen some fish species die. Eutrophication is undesirable, since it affects aquatic life. Eutrophication generally promotes excessive plant growth and decay, or favors certain species over the other, and is likely to cause reduction in water quality. In Aquatic environment enhanced growth disturbs normal functioning of the ecosystem causing a variety of problems such as lack of oxygen in the water , needed for fish to survive. The water becomes cloudy, colored, a shade of green, yellow, brown or red. Human society is impacted as well Eutrophication decreases the resource value of rivers, lakes and estuaries such that recreation , fishing, hunting and aesthetic enjoyment are hindered health related problem can occur where eutrophication condition interfere with drinking. Types of Eutrophication Eutrophication is mainly of two types: (1) Natural Eutrophication: The natural eutrophication is a normal process. The process of lake aging characterized by nutrient enrichment is called eutrophication. It permits production of algal booms, aquatic weeds, zooplanktons and fish. (2) Cultural Eutrophication: Whenever nutrients come from sewage treatment plants, poor farming practices, urban runoff and certain other human activities which are responsible for the addition of nitrogen, and Phosphorous to lakes and streams. The accelerated eutrophication caused by humans is called cultural eutrophication. Effects of Eutrophication Eutrophication causes several physical, chemical, and biological changes which considerably deteriorates the water quality. It causes the following effects. During Eutrophication, algal boom release toxic chemicals which kills fish, birds, and other aquatic animals causing the water to stink. Decomposition of algal boom leads to oxygen depletion in water. Thus, with a high CO2 level and poor oxygen supply, aquatic organisms begin to die and clean water turns into stinking drain. If the lake is a source of drinking water, it value may be greatly impaired because of phytoplankton rapidly clog water filters and may cause a few taste. Many pathogenic microbes, viruses, protozoa and bacteria etc. grow on sewage products under anaerobic conditions. It results into spread of total water-borne disease, such as polio, dysentery, typhoid and hepatitis. Controlling of Eutrophication The main cause for the production of algae are the available nutrients. If the supplies of such nutrients are restricted , growth will reduce. The steps to control eutrophication are Recycling of nutrients through harvest. Removal of algae blooms by dredging. Applying algaecides like chlorine, copper sulphates on water bodies. The wastewater must be treated before its discharge into water stream to limit the nutrient value. Directly discharging waste water away from lakes to river and the sea. Organic Farming- Research from the National Academy of Science found that organically fertilizing fields, significantly reduce harmful nitrate leaching. Removing Algae Activity- Case Study Write a Report on Minamata Disease in Japan due to Methyl mercury Poisoning caused by eating contaminated fish. Assignment Give Reason for Validity 1- Sabarmati river is one of the polluted rivers of Gujarat. 2- Salinity and water logging is a problem of South Gujarat. 3- Dilution is not a solution to pollution. 4- Well water near sea is contaminated. 5- Water Harvesting is made compulsory in metro cities.