Threat to Biodiversity

Report
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V1VYmpTikgw
http://youtu.be/I7G2rQARCC8

Biological Diversity (biodiversity)
› Total number of species in the biosphere
› The variety of life on earth

Ecosystem Diversity
› Variety of habitats, communities, & ecological
processes in the living world

Species Diversity
› Number of different species in the biosphere

Genetic Diversity (w/i species)
› Total of all different forms

Global Environment Concerns
Rising tides
Cape Hatteras in North Carolina
More pests
White Spruce trees in Alaska
No snow
Mount Hood in Oregon
•Species diversity refers to the variety of species within
region.
Rainforest are among the most
biodiverse Ecosystem in the World
Malaysia is one of the 12 world hotspots for
Biodiversity
Why is biodiversity so important?
We could call it our 'life support system'.
What threatens
biodiversity?
Many human activities have a negative effect upon our biodiversity.
Each time we change the natural environment we change the environment
that biodiversity lives in.
Greatest
Natural
Resource
Natural Resource
Is a material that
nature provides
which can be used
in production.
PASS OUT TABLE
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nn0RipJPRIY

Medicinal Value

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

Prescription drugs
Homeopathic remedies
Research
Consumptive Use Value
Wild fruits & vegetables, trees
 Skins, fibers, beeswax, seaweed
 Freshwater & marine fish
 Natives - hunting


Agricultural Value


Crops came from wild plants
Pollinators
http://www.youtube-nocookie.com/embed/xHkq1edcbk4?rel=0
Biogeochemical Cycles
 Waste Disposal



decomposition
Fresh Water

Water Cycle
Prevention of Soil Erosion
 Regulation of Climate
 Ecotourism
 Natural Beauty (Aesthetic Value)

Regions of the world that contain unusually
large concentrations of species.
 Biodiversity is highest at the tropics.

The most remarkable
places on earth are also
the most threatened
http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=667BA1A4-C549-42BC-8EEA-C22081F176B0
Trans Pecos
Edwards Plateau
&
Llano Uplift

Human Activity
1. Habitat Loss
 Habitat fragmentation
2. Demand for Wildlife Products
 Poaching
3. Non-native Species
 Invasive species
4. Pollution
 Biological magnification
http://player.discoveryeducation.com/?guidAssetId=eb93e962-2632-47f7-9a9a-5363461d6f48

Habitat Fragmentation
› Splitting of ecosystems into small fragments
Poaching – illegal hunting
 Overexploitation – overharvesting (overuse)


Throughout history there have been species pushed to extinction
› Food
› Ivory
› Clothes
› Décor
› Trade
› Tourists
› Medicine
http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/nat-geo-wild/shows-1/crimes-against-nature/ngc-poaching-endangered-species/

Tragedy of the Commons
› The idea that any resource that is free &
accessible to everyone may eventually be
destroyed. People may take advantage of a
resource without also taking the responsibility to
maintain it.
› Exploitation (overuse) of resources is due to the fact that
increasingly, humans modify ecosystems as a result of
population growth, technology, and consumption. Human
destruction of habitats through direct harvesting, is threatening
current global stability, and if not addressed, ecosystems will be
irreversibly affected.

Invasive Species – plants & animals that
have migrated to places where they are
not native
› Moved by humans accidentally or on
purpose
› Outcompete native species
› Reproduce rapidly
› No natural predators or parasites
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iwDzmwY_8wo
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ntKyFWOoNI
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6qgmPVASHHI
NON-NATIVES
Feral Hogs (mammal)
Nutria (aquatic mammal)
Chinese Tallow Tree
Japanese Privet (shrub)
European Starling (bird)
English House Sparrow (bird)
Zebra Mussel (invertebrate)
Snakehead (fish)
Emerald Ash Borer (beetle)
Imported Red Fire Ant

Pollution - Any environmental change that
negatively affects the lives & health of
living things
› Enters the biosphere
through land, air, or water

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

Chemical
Light
Solid waste
Nuclear waste
Thermal
Water
Air
Noise
http://www.youtube.com/embed/NOJEMO65nGk

Contaminants that can be traced back to
a specific source, location,
and offender.
› Water: Dumping of industrial
waste, sewage treatment
facilities, illegal dumping
› Air: Stationary equipment,
paper mills, oil refineries,
chemical processing facilities
Contaminants that cannot be traced back
to a specific source, location, and offender.
 Comes from many diffuse sources and often
enters in small amounts but can become
concentrated.
 Hard to manage

› Water: runoff
Discovered as a pesticide in 1930s
 Helped1 billion people stay malaria-free for
30 years


1962: Silent Spring by Rachel Carson


“Carson profiles many facets of DDT, besides it ability to kill disease and agricultural pests. DDT
is persistent in the environment. It seems to affect wildlife and non-target species. It is a contact
toxin to animals, and can possibly accumulate in the food chain, leading to neurological effects.
Carson claims it is a carcinogen, possibly poisoning food. For Carson, alternative pest
management strategies are available and need to be considered.”
http://www.tc.umn.edu/~allch001/1815/pestcide/sim/background.htm
1972: DDT banned in most nations
Harmful substance enters environment
 Concentration of
substance increases in
organisms at higher
trophic levels
 Affects the entire
food web
 Top-level carnivores
are at highest risk


Conservation = The planned management
of a natural resource to prevent waste

Preservation = The non-use of a natural
resource to prevent waste

Why would you want conservation/preservation
efforts to focus on protecting entire ecosystems & not
just a single species?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eGLP38P0GyM
Extinct
Endangered
Threatened
Species of Concern
(Watch List)
Endangered
A species whose _____________
population size is
declining in a way that places it
in danger of extinction
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VUT-JIbIOJI

Endangered Species Act (1973)
› Protection for endangered and threatened plant
and animal species & their habitats
 Effectiveness??? Exemptions are often granted if
 No alternatives to the project
 National or regional significance of project
 Benefits outweigh those of any alternatives

CITES (late 1970s)-prohibits trade and
commerce of threatened and endangered
species
› By 1998: signed by 144 countries
Texas Horned Lizard
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lhw7JSHPMg4
Bald Eagle
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1RtMHcq6KVs&feature=related
Alligator Snapping Turtle
Attwater’s Prairie-Chicken
http://youtu.be/tyIOPXsm_W4
Ocelot
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3DBV7gEJ-98
Disappearance of a species from all or part of its range
Passenger
Pigeon
http://vimeo.com/30054385
Ivory-billed Woodpecker
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QkIoS1E
61PY&feature=colike
Texas Species
Threatened Endangered
Extinct
Texas Horned Lizard *
Interior Least Tern
Carolina Parakeet *
Bald Eagle *
Ocelot
Passenger Pigeon *
Timber Rattlesnake *
Navasota Ladies’ Tresses
Red Wolf *
Wood Stork *
Texas Blind Salamander
Jaguar *
Alligator Snapping Turtle * Attwater’s PrairieChicken
Ivory-billed Woodpecker
60 Minutes: Resurrecting the Extinct http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=68QhIQLeVUA&feature=colike
60 Minutes: Can Hunting Endangered Animals Save Them? http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/02/pictures/120221-limblessamphibians-caecilians-new-species-science/
http://news.discovery.com/animals/extinct-frogs-amphibians-found.html
http://www.abcbirds.org/newsandreports/releases/120216.html
http://www.buzzfeed.com/mjs538/14-extinct-animals-that-were-rediscovered
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/02/120223-new-bat-species-vietnamanimals-science/
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/02/pictures/120221-limblessamphibians-caecilians-new-species-science/
http://video.pbs.org/video/1108704964
JOURNAL QUIZ
1. What is biodiversity?
2. List 1 benefit of biodiversity.
3. What 2 Texas Eco-regions have the highest
biological diversity?
4. What is the main threat to biodiversity?
5. What are 3 other human-caused threats to
biodiversity?
6. Give 1 example of a non-native invasive
species found in Matagorda County.
7. Give 1 example of an endangered species
found in Texas.

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