http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V1VYmpTikgw http://youtu.be/I7G2rQARCC8 Biological Diversity (biodiversity) › Total number of species in the biosphere › The variety of life on earth Ecosystem Diversity › Variety of habitats, communities, & ecological processes in the living world Species Diversity › Number of different species in the biosphere Genetic Diversity (w/i species) › Total of all different forms Global Environment Concerns Rising tides Cape Hatteras in North Carolina More pests White Spruce trees in Alaska No snow Mount Hood in Oregon •Species diversity refers to the variety of species within region. Rainforest are among the most biodiverse Ecosystem in the World Malaysia is one of the 12 world hotspots for Biodiversity Why is biodiversity so important? We could call it our 'life support system'. What threatens biodiversity? Many human activities have a negative effect upon our biodiversity. Each time we change the natural environment we change the environment that biodiversity lives in. Greatest Natural Resource Natural Resource Is a material that nature provides which can be used in production. PASS OUT TABLE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nn0RipJPRIY Medicinal Value Prescription drugs Homeopathic remedies Research Consumptive Use Value Wild fruits & vegetables, trees Skins, fibers, beeswax, seaweed Freshwater & marine fish Natives - hunting Agricultural Value Crops came from wild plants Pollinators http://www.youtube-nocookie.com/embed/xHkq1edcbk4?rel=0 Biogeochemical Cycles Waste Disposal decomposition Fresh Water Water Cycle Prevention of Soil Erosion Regulation of Climate Ecotourism Natural Beauty (Aesthetic Value) Regions of the world that contain unusually large concentrations of species. Biodiversity is highest at the tropics. The most remarkable places on earth are also the most threatened http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=667BA1A4-C549-42BC-8EEA-C22081F176B0 Trans Pecos Edwards Plateau & Llano Uplift Human Activity 1. Habitat Loss Habitat fragmentation 2. Demand for Wildlife Products Poaching 3. Non-native Species Invasive species 4. Pollution Biological magnification http://player.discoveryeducation.com/?guidAssetId=eb93e962-2632-47f7-9a9a-5363461d6f48 Habitat Fragmentation › Splitting of ecosystems into small fragments Poaching – illegal hunting Overexploitation – overharvesting (overuse) Throughout history there have been species pushed to extinction › Food › Ivory › Clothes › Décor › Trade › Tourists › Medicine http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/nat-geo-wild/shows-1/crimes-against-nature/ngc-poaching-endangered-species/ Tragedy of the Commons › The idea that any resource that is free & accessible to everyone may eventually be destroyed. People may take advantage of a resource without also taking the responsibility to maintain it. › Exploitation (overuse) of resources is due to the fact that increasingly, humans modify ecosystems as a result of population growth, technology, and consumption. Human destruction of habitats through direct harvesting, is threatening current global stability, and if not addressed, ecosystems will be irreversibly affected. Invasive Species – plants & animals that have migrated to places where they are not native › Moved by humans accidentally or on purpose › Outcompete native species › Reproduce rapidly › No natural predators or parasites http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iwDzmwY_8wo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ntKyFWOoNI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6qgmPVASHHI NON-NATIVES Feral Hogs (mammal) Nutria (aquatic mammal) Chinese Tallow Tree Japanese Privet (shrub) European Starling (bird) English House Sparrow (bird) Zebra Mussel (invertebrate) Snakehead (fish) Emerald Ash Borer (beetle) Imported Red Fire Ant Pollution - Any environmental change that negatively affects the lives & health of living things › Enters the biosphere through land, air, or water Chemical Light Solid waste Nuclear waste Thermal Water Air Noise http://www.youtube.com/embed/NOJEMO65nGk Contaminants that can be traced back to a specific source, location, and offender. › Water: Dumping of industrial waste, sewage treatment facilities, illegal dumping › Air: Stationary equipment, paper mills, oil refineries, chemical processing facilities Contaminants that cannot be traced back to a specific source, location, and offender. Comes from many diffuse sources and often enters in small amounts but can become concentrated. Hard to manage › Water: runoff Discovered as a pesticide in 1930s Helped1 billion people stay malaria-free for 30 years 1962: Silent Spring by Rachel Carson “Carson profiles many facets of DDT, besides it ability to kill disease and agricultural pests. DDT is persistent in the environment. It seems to affect wildlife and non-target species. It is a contact toxin to animals, and can possibly accumulate in the food chain, leading to neurological effects. Carson claims it is a carcinogen, possibly poisoning food. For Carson, alternative pest management strategies are available and need to be considered.” http://www.tc.umn.edu/~allch001/1815/pestcide/sim/background.htm 1972: DDT banned in most nations Harmful substance enters environment Concentration of substance increases in organisms at higher trophic levels Affects the entire food web Top-level carnivores are at highest risk Conservation = The planned management of a natural resource to prevent waste Preservation = The non-use of a natural resource to prevent waste Why would you want conservation/preservation efforts to focus on protecting entire ecosystems & not just a single species? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eGLP38P0GyM Extinct Endangered Threatened Species of Concern (Watch List) Endangered A species whose _____________ population size is declining in a way that places it in danger of extinction http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VUT-JIbIOJI Endangered Species Act (1973) › Protection for endangered and threatened plant and animal species & their habitats Effectiveness??? Exemptions are often granted if No alternatives to the project National or regional significance of project Benefits outweigh those of any alternatives CITES (late 1970s)-prohibits trade and commerce of threatened and endangered species › By 1998: signed by 144 countries Texas Horned Lizard http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lhw7JSHPMg4 Bald Eagle http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1RtMHcq6KVs&feature=related Alligator Snapping Turtle Attwater’s Prairie-Chicken http://youtu.be/tyIOPXsm_W4 Ocelot http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3DBV7gEJ-98 Disappearance of a species from all or part of its range Passenger Pigeon http://vimeo.com/30054385 Ivory-billed Woodpecker http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QkIoS1E 61PY&feature=colike Texas Species Threatened Endangered Extinct Texas Horned Lizard * Interior Least Tern Carolina Parakeet * Bald Eagle * Ocelot Passenger Pigeon * Timber Rattlesnake * Navasota Ladies’ Tresses Red Wolf * Wood Stork * Texas Blind Salamander Jaguar * Alligator Snapping Turtle * Attwater’s PrairieChicken Ivory-billed Woodpecker 60 Minutes: Resurrecting the Extinct http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=68QhIQLeVUA&feature=colike 60 Minutes: Can Hunting Endangered Animals Save Them? http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/02/pictures/120221-limblessamphibians-caecilians-new-species-science/ http://news.discovery.com/animals/extinct-frogs-amphibians-found.html http://www.abcbirds.org/newsandreports/releases/120216.html http://www.buzzfeed.com/mjs538/14-extinct-animals-that-were-rediscovered http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/02/120223-new-bat-species-vietnamanimals-science/ http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/02/pictures/120221-limblessamphibians-caecilians-new-species-science/ http://video.pbs.org/video/1108704964 JOURNAL QUIZ 1. What is biodiversity? 2. List 1 benefit of biodiversity. 3. What 2 Texas Eco-regions have the highest biological diversity? 4. What is the main threat to biodiversity? 5. What are 3 other human-caused threats to biodiversity? 6. Give 1 example of a non-native invasive species found in Matagorda County. 7. Give 1 example of an endangered species found in Texas.