How a Writer Structures the Argument Intended Purpose and Effect Introduction (exordium “beginning a web”) --often where the writer establishes ethos Narration (narratio) --appeals to logos and often to pathos Confirmation (confirmatio) --makes the strongest appeal to logos Refutation (refutatio) --address counterargument --bridges writer’s proof and conclusion --appeals to logos Conclusion (peroratio) --usually appeals to pathos --reminds to reader of the ethos established earlier --answers the question, “So what?” --contains memorable last words Analyze “Not by Math Alone,” a piece written in 2006 by Sandra Day O’Connor, a former Supreme Court justice, and Roy Romer, superintendent of Los Angeles Unified School District. Identify the five parts of the classical model. Methods of Organization that Reflect the Author’s Purpose Telling a story or recounting a series of events Usually chronological Includes concrete detail, point of view, and sometimes elements of dialogue Crafts a story that supports the thesis Often used to enter into topics Has the advantage of drawing readers in Read Rebecca Walker’s story about her son that leads to her explanation of why she put together the anthology Putting Down the Gun, p. 412 Closely allied with narration Includes many specific details Emphasizes the senses Often used to establish a mood or atmosphere Rarely used as an entire essay Clear and vivid description can make writing more persuasive Helps readers empathize with author Used to prove a point Read Barbara Ehenreich’s example from “Serving in Florida” and George Orwell’s example from “Shooting an Elephant.” The descriptive language of each serves to prove what two points? Explains how something works, how to do something, or how something was done Clarity is key, explaining a subject clearly and logically, with transitions that mark the sequence of major steps, stages, or phases of the process. Strong verbs emphasize the process. Can be used to prove a point Read an excerpt from Elizabeth Royte’s essay “Transsexual Frogs,” investigating the impact of the pesticide atrazine. Provides a series of examples—facts, specific cases, or instances—a type of logical proof Aristotle called induction, leading to a general conclusion Turns a general idea into a concrete one Makes argument clearer and more persuasive May contain one extended example or a series of related ones to illustrate a point Read Francine Prose’s “I Know Why a Caged Bird Cannot Read.” Analyze the effect of the examples and the point she is trying to make. Juxtaposes two things to highlight their similarities and differences Used to analyze information carefully, which often reveals insights into the nature of the information being analyzed Required on AP exam to discuss the subtle differences or similarities in the method, style, or purpose of two texts Can be utilized to lead the reader to draw a conclusion— the point the author is trying to make Can be organized in two ways: subject-by-subject or point by point Read Lori Arviso Alvord’s excerpt from “Walking the Path Between Worlds.” Which two things are juxtaposed, and which method of organization does she use? What conclusion do you draw? What is her point? Sorts material or ideas into major categories Answers the question, “What goes together and why?” Makes connections between things that might otherwise seem unrelated. (See Bacon’s quote about books.) Often breaks down a larger idea or concepts into parts Can explore an idea in a systematic ways that enables the reader to see the problems the author sees and wants to expose. (Read Orwell’s “Politics and the English Language,” p. 529) Read excerpt from Amy Tan’s “Mother Tongue.” How does she classify the “Englishes” she speaks? p. 23 Ensures that writers and their audiences are speaking the same language by laying the foundation to establish common ground or identifying areas of conflict Often the first step in a debate or disagreement Often only a paragraph or two that clarify terms Can be the purpose of an entire essay Read Jane Howard’s essay “In Search of the Good Family,” in which she analyzes the ten characteristics that define a family. P.283 Can analyze causes that lead to an effect (Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring—her case for the unintended and unexpected effects of the pesticide DDT) OR Can analyze the effects that result from a cause (Terry Tempest Williams' “The Clan of One-Breasted Women” proceeds from the effect she sees— the breast cancer that has affected the women in her family—to argue that the cause is environmental) Causal analysis depends upon crystal clear logic—must recognize possible contributing causes—refraining from jumping to conclusions that there is only one cause or one result or mistaking an effect for an underlying cause. Ex. In “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” Martin Luther King, Jr. points out that his critics had mistaken a cause for an effect: the protests of the civil rights movement were not the cause of violence but the effect of segregation. Read excerpt from Francine Prose’s “I Know Why a Caged Bird Cannot Read,” in which she explains the positive effects of reading classical literature and the negative effects of ineffectively taught literature. Reread Jody Heyman’s essay “We Can Afford to Give Parents a Break” (p.6), and discuss the patterns of development she uses. Which of these patterns prevails in the overall essay? Which does she use in specific sections or paragraphs? Shea, Renee et al. The Language of Composition: Reading, Writing, Rhetoric. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008.