Bacterial Meningitis

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Bacterial Meningitis
Inflammation of the meninges
Caused by bacteria, Viruses ,
fungus, parasites, cancer and
certain drugs
An empyema
occurring in the brain
as an result of
meningitis.
Age Group
Causes
Newborns
Group B Streptococcus,
Escherichia coli, Listeria
monocytogenes
Streptococcus pneumoniae,
Neisseria meningitidis,
Haemophilus influenzae type b
Neisseria meningitidis,
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Streptococcus pneumoniae,
Neisseria meningitidis,
Listeria monocytogenes
Infants and Children
Adolescents and Young
Adults
Older Adults
Streptococcus pneumoniae
One of the top contributors ear
infections and can
cause Pneumococcal
pneumonia.
Gram positive containing
polysaccharide capsule prevents the
bacteria from undergoing
phagocytosis
Normally causes
Listeriosis
Listeria monocytogenes
Gram positive bacteria that uses the
protein “internalin” to attach to a
cadherin protein found in the blood
brain barrier.
Neisseria meningitidis
Gram negative bacteria, has trimeric
autotransporter adhesin or
adhesion proteins which to bind to
host cells.
These bacteria can live
normally inside of your
body and never cause
meningitis.
Through an ear infection, head
trauma, neural surgery or an
compromised immune system, the
chances of contracting meningitis
are greatly increased.
The bacteria grows inside the
Subarachnoid space in cerebral
spinal fluid
The cerebral spinal fluid contains
everything these bacteria could
want.
Bacterial Meningitis since can be
caused by many different bacteria
has an incubation period ranging
for 2-10 days with 4 days being the
average.
The bacteria release endotoxins (cell
membrane and cell wall fragments).
Gram positive (Streptococcus,
Listeria) -cell wall
Gram negative(Neisseria ) -cell
membrane, cell wall
The immune system recognizes the
endotoxins inside the CSF and
begins killing the bacteria. Creating
dead bacteria and dead white cells
(pus) called an empyema.
This inflammation puts pressure on
the brain.
Sudden onset of Headaches, neck
stiffness, fear, confusion, vomiting,
irritability, skin rashes, inability to
tolerate light or loud noises
These bacteria can be spread
through nose and throat body
fluids.
High risk groups
Infancy
Elderly
Immunocompromised
Head trauma
neural surgery
Ear infections
College students
Military recruits
The body cannot handle this disease
on its own. Untreated bacterial
meningitis has a mortality rate of
50%.
Even with early treatment 5-10% of
the patients die within the first 2448 hours since the onset of
symptoms. While others can
survive but be deaf or develop
epilepsy or other cognitive issues.
Blood cultures are used to
determine signs of inflammation
and a lumbar puncture is used to
definitively test for the presence of
bacteria in the CSF
The bacteria cultures are grown an
are tested with gram staining.
Patients who show these symptoms
are immediately put on corticoid
steroids, which reduce the bodies
inflammatory response.
Bacterial Meningitis is so virulent
that treatment is started before the
result of the staining and LP are
known, with treatment being
changed when the results are
known.
The treatment is based upon any
information the doctors have
available.
Certain strains and their resistances
are more predominate in certain
regions.
Some symptoms (rashes) only occur
in certain strains (Neisseria)
The MCV4 Vaccine can prevent 4
types of bacterial meningitis.
The MCV4 contains no active
bacteria, only an antigen taken from
a polysaccharide capsule. This is
sugar capsule that the bacteria uses
to avoid phagocytosis.
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