Marine ecosystem services: contributions to well

Report
Marine ecosystem services and their
contributions to health and well-being
Caroline Hattam
28th November 2013
Growing Plymouth’s Health and Wealth through the Natural Environment
Marine ecosystem services: what are they?
“The direct and indirect contributions of ecosystems
to human health and well-being” (TEEB, 2010)
• Tangible goods and intangible
services
• Ecological in nature
• Would continue to exist
irrespective of humans
• Fundamental to our well-being
• Contested term
Institutions & human
judgments determining
(the use of) services
Management/
restoration
Feedback between
value perception
and use of ecosystem services
Ecosystems & Biodiversity
Human wellbeing
(socio-cultural context)
Biophysical
structure or
process
Function*
(e.g. vegetation
cover or Net
Primary
Productivity)
(e.g. slow
water
passage,
biomass)
* Subset of biophysical structure or
process providing the service
Service
(e.g. floodprotection,
products
Benefit(s)
(contribution
to health,
safety, etc)
(econ) Value
(e.g. WTP for
protection or
products
TEEB: The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (2010)
Drivers of
biodiversity loss
and ecosystem
degradation
World A: without action
Quantify and map
ecosystem service
provision
Policy action
to halt losses
World B: with action
Quantify and map
differences in service
provision
Quantify and map
ecosystem service
provision
Quantify and map
costs of action
From Balmford et al (2008)
Quantify and map
net economic
consequences of
action
How does it affect
poverty? Equity?
Global GDP? etc
Quantify and map
economic value of
differences in
ecosystem
services
Ecosystem Service Valuation
• Growing demand for monetary valuation
– Stated preference and revealed preference
£ ££
£
£
• Why?
– Facilitate entry of environment into economic and social decision-making
– Support decision-making via cost-benefit analysis
– Identify allocation of environmental management effort to maximise
benefits
– Determine damage compensation
– Establish price setting (e.g. payment for ecosystem services, entrance
fees)
– More generally, contribute to the discussion
Example monetary valuation
• Value of mudflat loss, N. Devon (Tara Hooper)
–
–
–
–
–
Contingent valuation and choice experiment (stated preference)
Create a hypothetical scenario (tidal barrage)
Willingness to pay for mudflat protection (CVM &CE)
Willingness to pay for flood defence and energy production (CE)
Outcome: annual value/household for reduction of impacts on mudflats (CV
£28.17; CE £17.76)
• Underway:
– windfarm development (N Hoyle),
– management of the Dogger Bank and impact on ecosystem services,
– health impacts from use of Cornish coast
Alternative measures of value
• Monetary valuation useful in some circumstances
– National Ecosystem Assessment – influenced Natural Environment White
Paper
– National ecosystem accounts
• But, problematic
–
–
–
–
–
Lack of evidence of use in decision-making
Lack of data for thorough assessment and valuation
Costly
Misinterpretation of findings
Simplification
• What are the alternatives?
– Qualitative assessments
– Health effects
Qualitative Assessments
VALMER – work in progress
Health
• Does living by the coast improve health and wellbeing?
– Wheeler et al, 2012 (2001 Census data for England)
– Self-reported health increases with residential proximity to coast
– Positive effect strengthens with socio-economic deprivation
– White et al, 2013 (BHPS 1991-2008)
– Benefits largely when living <5km from the coast
– More strongly associated with reductions in e.g. mental distress
–
–
–
–
Restorative effects of Plymouth Sound (unpublished, on-going)
Comparison with Central Park
Fresh air, freedom, inspiration, beauty (culture and heritage)
Marked difference in responses
• Findings require caution – health risks associated with the ocean
How can we use this information?
• Substantial natural asset – how use to promote growth?
• Direct route:
– Promote education, quality of life
– Encourage investment in marine industries and leisure
• Indirect route: What in the ecosystem can be improved?
–
–
–
–
Water quality and links to Bathing Water Directive
Connectivity: land influences the sea and vice versa
Payment for ecosystem services: Fowey estuary example
Could it work for Plymouth? Need to incorporate industry and public
Conclusions
• Ecosystem services = contributions to well-being
• Complex and difficult to assess
• Valuation comes with many caveats
• Lots of ways to value the environment
– Monetary value is not the only value
• Evidence of health impacts, especially relating to mental
health
• How to capitalise on this to support growth and wealth
generation?
Thank you

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