Independent clause

Report
Punctuation: Commas,
semi-colons and colons
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Sentence structure
All sentences have at least 2 elements:
Subject
Rain
Predicate
falls.
Most sentences have a subject and predicate that contains
additional information:
Subject
Rain
Predicate
falls on the ground.
Clauses
There are 2 types of clauses:
Independent clause:
An independent clause contains a
subject and a predicate, and it can
stand alone as a sentence.
Dependent clause:
A dependent clause may contain a
subject and a predicate; it needs
an independent clause to make
sense.
The rain fell on the ground (IC), which made puddles form
(DC).
Clauses example
Once upon a time, a princess kissed a frog. The frog was green and ugly,
but the princess didn’t care. The princess knew, better than most, that
people shouldn’t judge appearances. She had a secret, which only her
parents knew: she was actually an enchanted frog. As for the frog, he
thought it was a bit strange for a princess to kiss him; however, he wasn’t
about to stop her as he had also heard the stories.
Independent
clause
Dependent
clause
Joining clauses
• To join 2 independent clauses (IC), use a coordinating conjunction (CC:
for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so).
IC, CC IC.: The frog was green and very ugly, but the princess didn’t
care.
• To join an independent clause (IC) and a dependent clause (DC), use a
subordinate clause (SC: which, because, as, since, so, although, though,
whereas, while, after).
 IC, SC DC.: She had a secret, which only her parents knew.
Punctuation: Comma
Use a comma:
1. to join 2 independent clauses with a coordinating conjunction (and,
but, or, for, nor, so). Place the comma before the conjunction.
 IC, CC IC.: The frog was green and ugly, but the princess didn’t care.
2.
after an introductory phrase, prepositional phrase, or dependent
clause.

DC, IC.: Once upon a time, a princess kissed a frog.
Punctuation: Comma
Use a comma:
3. to separate non-essential elements from a sentence
 IC, DC, continued IC.: The princess knew, better than most, that
people shouldn’t judge appearances.
4.
after a transition (TR)
 IC; TR, IC.: The frog thought it was a bit strange for a princess to
kiss him; however, he wasn’t about to stop her as he had also
heard the stories.
Punctuation: Comma
Use a comma:
5. to separate elements in a series
 My favourite shirts are red, blue, yellow, and green.
 Use the serial comma, which comes after the second-to-last list item and before
the ‘and’.
• Other comma usages:
 between coordinate adjectives (adjectives that are equal and
reversible)
 with quoted words (The teacher said, “what are you doing?”)
 in a date (Thursday, March 29, 2007)
 in a number (10,000)
 in a personal title (Ima Student, M.A.)
 between a city and provincial/state name (Victoria, B.C.)
Punctuation: Semi-colon
Use a semicolon to:
1.
join 2 independent clauses when the second clause restates the first
clause or when the two clauses are of equal emphasis.
 IC; IC.: Research is fundamental; theories advance knowledge.
2.
join elements of a series when individual items of the series already
include commas
 Major cities in Canada include: Vancouver, British Columbia;
Calgary, Alberta; and Toronto, Ontario.
Punctuation: Semi-colon
Use a semicolon to:
3.
join 2 independent clauses when the second clause begins with a
conjunctive adverb (CA)* or a transition (TR)** .
 IC; CA/TR, IC.: The capital city of British Columbia is Victoria;
however, some people think it should be Vancouver.
*
Conjunctive adverb: however, therefore, moreover, furthermore, thus,
meanwhile, nonetheless, otherwise
** Transition: in fact, for example, that is, for instance, in addition, in other words,
on the other hand, even so
Punctuation: Colon
Use a colon:
1. to join 2 independent clauses when you wish to emphasize the second
clause
 IC: IC.: The rain caused considerable flooding in British Columbia:
Highways 1, 1A, 2 and 4 were all closed for five days after the
storm.
2.
after an independent clause when it is followed by a list, a quotation,
or other idea directly related to the independent clause.
 There are six colours in a rainbow: red, orange, yellow, green, blue,
and violet.
Punctuation Cheat
Sheet
cheat sheet
Independent clause. Independent clause.
IC.IC.
Independent clause; independent clause.
IC; IC.
Independent clause, coordinating conjunction,
independent clause
IC, CC IC.
Dependent clause, independent clause.
DC, IC.
Independent clause, dependent clause,
continuation of independent clause.
IC, DC, IC.
Independent clause, subordinate clause dependent
clause.
IC, SC DC.
Independent clause; conjunctive adverb/transition,
independent clause.
IC; CA/TR, IC.
Use semi-colons to separate list items with commas
within the items
I’m going to Calgary, Alberta; Ottawa, Ontario; and
St. John’s, Newfoundland.
Independent clause: independent clause as
emphasis of the first statement.
IC: IC.
Independent clause: List/quotation/idea related to
the independent clause.
IC: other information.
Questions?
•
Drop by the Writing Centre in the Library
•
Office hours: 10-5, Monday to Friday
•
By phone: (250) 391-2600, ext. 4353
•
Email: [email protected]

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