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SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program
The SPE Distinguished Lecturer Program is funded principally
through a grant from the SPE Foundation.
The society gratefully acknowledges the companies that support
this program by allowing their professionals to participate as
lecturers.
Special thanks to the American Institute of
Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum
Engineers (AIME) for its contribution to
the program.
Society of Petroleum Engineers
Distinguished Lecturer Program
www.spe.org/dl
Produced Water Management
A Legacy or an Opportunity for Sustainable Field Development
Dr. Zara Khatib
Shell E&P International
Middle East & South Asia Region
Society of Petroleum Engineers
Distinguished Lecturer Program
www.spe.org/dl
Outline
 Global energy and water challenges
 Produced water from oil fields : sources &
challenges
 Water management practices
 Examples where technology enabled
integrated water management
 Key messages & conclusions
The ‘Global Energy Challenge’
Providing access to modern
energy for all
Meeting growing demand while
reducing environmental and
social impacts
Shifting towards a low-carbon
energy system
Front-page Issues Every Day
Energy diversity & security
Climate change
Local air pollution
Water is now emerging as the next global issue
Freshwater stress is increasing
faster than expected
---- 2005
(WBCSD Water Scenarios to 2025, published 2006)
Produced Water Sources
Gas
Processing
water
Produced
Water Injection
Oil Pipeline
Oil
Produced
Water
Discharge
Surface Facilities
Sea or River
Water Injection
Producing
Zone
Aquifer
Oil Producer
Well
Water Injector
Well
Globally
For Every Barrel of Oil Produced
3 Barrels of Water Are Co-produced
Average Global Produced Water Volumes
Increased by 20% in Last Two Years
(DOE J. Vale)
Average Produced Water Per Country
Water Oil Ratios (Bbl/bbl)
Canada
USA
Oman
Kuwait
Norway
Saudi
UAE
0
2
4
6
8
10
Water Oil Ratios
12
14
16
Produced Water Handling Is Costly
Separation (15%)
Cost ranges from $0.15-$15/bbl of water
High Water Footprint With IOR/EOR
Waterflood
Thermal
EOR
Waterflood
Primary
Primary
5 years
Primary
Waterflood
& Polymer
10 years
20 years
Oil production split based on Recovery Processes
Water Footprint in Steam Floods
steam generator
injection well
production well
heat losses
steam and
condensed water
hot water
oil bank
oil and water zone
Water Management Practices
Minimise the volumes to Surface
Maximise re-use of water by injecting
into hydrocarbon producing formation
Reduce footprint and cost
Use beneficially all resources
Safeguard open waters & aquifers
Examples Where Technology Enabled
Integrated Water Management
Impact of Well Completion on
Water Production
250
Rate, Km3/d
200
90
Horizontal wells
80
175
70
150
60
125
50
100
40
75
30
50
20
25
10
0
0
1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005
Water Cut ( %)
225
100
Water Rate
Oil Rate
Water Injection
Water Cut
Early Water Breakthrough in
Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
Sh Max
Fracture aligned parallel to Sh Max,
increasing conductivity
Water Injection
Water production
Sh Max
Control of Induced Fractures
During Water Flood
Water quality of
injection water is key
Pressure Control at Injectors
Conventional- Pressure Control at Producers
Ultimate Recovery > 15%
1.5 yrs
6 yrs
465 days
10 yrs
2201 days
3796 days
1
1
1
5
0.9
5
0.9
5
0.9
10
0.8
10
0.8
10
0.8
0.7
15
0.6
20
0.7
15
0.6
20
0.5
25
25
30
0.2
40
0.1
45
10
20
30
40
0.4
30
0.3
35
0.2
40
0.1
45
0
0.5
25
0.4
0.3
35
0.6
20
0.5
0.4
30
0.7
15
10
20
30
40
0.3
35
0.2
40
0.1
45
0
10
20
30
40
0
Optimal – Pressure Control at Injectors
463 days
2205 days
3796 days
1
5
0.9
10
0.8
0.7
15
0.6
20
1
0.9
5
0.9
10
0.8
10
0.8
0.7
15
0.6
20
0.5
25
40
0.1
45
10
20
30
40
0
0.5
25
30
0.2
0.6
20
0.4
0.4
30
0.3
35
0.7
15
0.5
25
0.4
30
1
5
0.3
35
0.2
40
0.1
45
10
20
30
40
0
0.3
35
0.2
40
0.1
45
10
20
30
40
0
Water Front Management
(4D Seismic)
 Increased intensity of
injection to southern wells
 Converted high water cut
producers to injectors
 Used produced water
injection instead of seawater
in the North
Impact of High Rate ESP’s
Novel Zonal Isolation
• Game-changer technology
• Threefold increase of oil production
• Less water production
Elastomer
3.6 millimeter
Elastomer
8.1millimeter
(118% increase)
Increase in Oil Production by
Water Shut-off at the Source
Small Foot Print and Lower Impact
on Environment
(Modular, Compact, Fit for Purpose Facilities)
Offshore Assets
Land Assets
Deepwater Sub-sea
Maximise Resource Utilisation
Other fibre crops
Converting waste water to value
Ultra Clean Fuels From Natural Gas with Good Water &
Energy Value Opportunity
Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis (SMDS) in Malaysia
Gas intake: 12,500 t/d, Fuel production: 9500 t/d
• process water production- 13,000 t/d
• excess heat - 2-3 gigawatt energy in
steam
• Waste heat can be used to treat
water to make it suitable for
irrigation or drinking water - 1 mw =>
240 m3/d
By Design: All By-products are valuable
Natural
Gas
CH 4
Gas
Treatment
+ O2
Syngas
Manufacturing
Manufacturing
Sulphur (480
t/day)
CO + 2H
2
Fischer Tropsch
Synthesis
- CH 2 -
Hydrocracking
-
Water
(~1400 m3/hr)
Deep Treating
Sell
R&D
Concrete & asphalt
Plant cooling
System
Re-use in
process
Once-through sea water No waste water discharge to
sea
cooling not required
Extracting Energy From Hot Rocks
Pilot in El-Salvador
• Steam produced from fractured hot
rock drives turbine
• Enough electricity generated to
supply 9000 homes
Benefits
 Reduced greenhouse gas
emissions
 Carbon credits under Clean
Development Mechanism
 A clean, renewable and indigenous
resource
Induced
fractures
Reed Beds to Biofuels
4500m3/day of produced water not injected deep wells is
equivalent to about :
• 100 Million Cubic Feet/year Gas savings and
• 5 KT/y CO2 less emission
Key Messages & Conclusions
 Produced Water is 3 times the oil production
and has been increasing at about 10% per year
 Water management practices are an integral
part of effective well and reservoir management
 Technology enables integrated water
management but the challenge is in the
implementation
Key Messages & Conclusions
 Produced water is a valuable resource
particularly in an increasingly constrained fresh
water world
 Turning Produced Water from a “Legacy” to
an “Opportunity” has been demonstrated
 Integrated Water Management is good
business for sustainable field development
“We are all guardians of the future. What
we do today will impact on the world that the
next generations will inherit”
Innovation
Thank You
Q&A

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