Mooring Locations on WFS Ocean Circulation Group (http

Report
Florida
Environmental
Research
Institute
Center for Remote Sensing and Computational Ecology
PREDICTION OF HYPERSPECTRAL IOPs ON THE
WEST FLORIDA SHELF
W. Paul Bissett
Florida Environmental Research Institute
John J. Walsh, Dwight A. Dieterle, and Jason Jolliff
Department of Marine Science, University of South Florida
Contributors to the Presentation
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• This work presented here is part of a larger program to predict
Inherent and Apparent Optical Properties (IOPs and AOPs) in
the coastal ocean (ONR HyCODE program) and the Ecology of
Harmful Algal Blooms (ONR/NSF/NOAA/EPA ECOHAB).
• Field data provided by –
–
–
–
–
–
R. Arnone, Naval Research Laboratory-Stennis Space Center
T. Hopkins & T. Sutton, University of South Florida
G. Kirkpatrick, Mote Marine Laboratory
S. Lohrenz, University of Southern Mississippi
R. Weisberg, University of South Florida
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Red Tides on the West Florida Shelf
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Gymnodinium breve
Breve-toxin causes fish
kills and respiratory
ailments.
In 1996, an extended G. breve
bloom was implicated in the
deaths of 149 manatees off
west coast of Florida.
West Florida Shelf (WFS)
ECOHAB Control
Volume
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Research
Institute
EcoSim 1.0 Review
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Institute
–four functional groups of
phytoplankton
–heterotrophic and chemolithic
bacteria
–two forms of dissolved organic
carbon and nitrogen
–spectral light (5 nm resolution)
–differential (non-redfield) carbon
and nitrogen cycling
–grazing, sinking, and excretion
–particulate remineralization
–nitrification and nitrogen-fixation
–surface gas exchange
–colored dissolved organic carbon
cycling
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EcoSim 2.0 Formulation
Air/Sea
CO2
Dust
Iron
CO2
Physical Mixing and Advection
NH4
NO3
Relict
DOM
PO4
Pelagic
Diatoms
G. breve
Light
N2
SiO4
Dinoflagellate
Trichodesmium
Synechococcus
ProChlorococcus
Excreted
DOM
Lysed
DOM
Viruses
Copepod
Ciliates
Bacteria
Sediment
Detritus
Predator
Closure
HeteroFlagellet
Coastal
Diatoms
EcoSim 2.0 Formulation
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• Transition from 1- to 3-dimensional coding.
• Addition of phosphorous, silica, and iron as limiting nutrients.
– All POM and DOM state variables are independent, allowing for
“non-Redfield” stoichiometry.
• Addition of 3 new phytoplankton functional groups.
– Coastal diatoms, coastal dinoflagellates, and G. breve.
• Living particulate detritus absorption addition to phytoplankton
inherent optical properties (IOPs).
• New CDOM cycling dynamics.
– Color is now conserved and assumed to be recalcitrant to bacterial
remediation.
• Bottom boundary claims all fluxing particulate material.
– Sediment chlorophyll a can be as high as overlying waters.
EcoSim Light Model
For each
depth interval
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light attenuation
c(l,t) = a(l,t) + b(l,t)
absorption
a(l,t) = awater(l) + aphyto(l) + aCDOM(l) + ased(l)
scattering
b(l,t) = bwater(l) + bphyto(l) + bCDOM(l) + bsed(l)
backscattering
bb(l,t) = bb,water(l) + bb,phyto(l) + bb,CDOM(l) + bb,sed(l)
geometric structure of light
md(l) = fxn[b(l,t),c (l ,t), m0(l)]
diffuse light attenuation
Kd(l) = [a(l,t) + bb(l ,t)]/md(l)]
water leaving radiance to a satellite
Lu(l) = fxn[a(l,t),b(l ,t), bb(l ,t),Ed(l,t), md(l), md(l), mu(l)]
West Florida Shelf (WFS)
Florida Middle
Grounds
ECOHAB Control
Volume
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Aerial Photograph of Trichodesmium
St. Petersburg Beach, FL July 7, 1995
Trichodesmium Bloom
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Location of G. breve October 2000
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Location of G. breve October 2000
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Mooring Locations on WFS
Ocean Circulation Group (http://ocg6.marine.usf.edu/)
R. Weisberg USF
Florida
Environmental
Research
Institute
September 1998
Florida
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Institute
October 1998
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November 1998
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December 1998
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2-Dimensional Representation of WFS
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High Resolution Sampler (HRS)
T. Hopkins & T. Sutton (USF) September 22-23, 1998
A
0
36
Depth (m)
10
35.5
20
35
30
34.5
34
40
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
o
C
B
0
28
Depth (m)
10
26
20
24
30
22
40
20
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
c(m-1)
C
0
Depth (m)
10
Zone 1
1.679
Zone 3
20
1.548
30
Zone 2
1.42
40
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Distance (km) from initial offshore deployment
80
90
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Mote Marine EcoHAB Cruise
G. Kirkpatrick September 22, 1998
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EcoSim 2.0 Nutrients (Day 270)
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EcoSim 2.0 Phytoplankton Carbon (Day 270)
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EcoSim 2.0 Chlorophyll a (Day 270)
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EcoSim Phytoplankton C:N Ratio (Day 270)
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EcoSim 2.0 Particulate and CDM Absorption
412 and 487 nm (Day 270)
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EcoSim 2.0 Absorption and Diffuse Attenuation
412 and 487 nm (Day 270)
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Florida
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EcoSim 2.0
Predicted
Particulate
Absorption
(Day 270)
9 m, near-shore
Chl a = 1.34 mg m-3
0.12
apig
Tfapig
Station A1
(mouth of Tampa Bay)
0.1
2 m, near-shore
Chl a = 1.61 mg m-3
-1
Measured Absorption
aph(l)
a ph (m )
0.08
0.06
Chl a = 0.95 mg m-3
(>3 micron)
0.04
S. Lohrenz (USM) October 1998
0.02
0
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
Wavelength(nm)
700
750
800
850
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EcoSim 2.0
Predicted
Particulate
Absorption
(Day 270)
1 m, off-shore
Chl a = 0.18 mg m-3
0.012
0.01
3 m, off-shore
Chl a = 0.14 mg m-3
-1
a ph (m )
0.008
Measured Absorption
aph(l)
apig
Tfapig
Station A11
Offshore (2.9 m)
0.006
Chl a = 0.14 mg m-3
(>3 micron)
0.004
S. Lohrenz (USM) October 1998
0.002
0
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
Wavelength(nm)
700
750
800
850
Florida
Environmental
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Institute
EcoSim 2.0
Predicted
Particulate
Absorption
(Day 270)
39 m, off-shore
Chl a = 0.46 mg m-3
0.045
apig
Tfapig
Station A11
Offshore (67.6 m)
0.04
S. Lohrenz (USM) October 1998
-1
Measured Absorption
aph(l)
a ph (m )
0.035
0.03
68 m, off-shore
0.025
Chl a = 0.45 mg m-3
Chl a = 0.38 mg m-3
(>3 micron)
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.005
0
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
Wavelength(nm)
700
750
800
850
EcoHAB Process Cruise
G. Kirkpatrick (MML) October 5 – 12, 1998
Florida
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SeaWiFS Kd(490) Calculation
October 6, 1998 B. Arnone (NRL-Stennis)
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m-1
5.00
1.25
0.31
0.08
0.02
SeaWiFS (SeaBAM) Chlorophyll a
October 6, 1998 B. Arnone (NRL-Stennis)
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m-1
45.0
7.61
1.32
0.23
0.04
EcoSim 2.0 Nutrients (Day 306)
Florida
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EcoSim 2.0 Phytoplankton Carbon (Day 306)
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EcoSim 2.0 Chlorophyll a (Day 306)
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EcoSim 2.0 Absorption and Diffuse Attenuation
412 and 487 nm (Day 306)
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Mote Marine EcoHAB Cruise
G. Kirkpatrick November 23, 1998
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EcoSim 2.0 Phytoplankton Carbon (Day 324)
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EcoSim 2.0 Chlorophyll a (Day 324)
Florida
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EcoSim 2.0 Absorption and Diffuse Attenuation
412 and 487 nm (Day 324)
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EcoHAB Process Cruise
G. Kirkpatrick November 16-19, 1998
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EcoSim 2.0 Phytoplankton Carbon (Day 324)
Reduced Grazing Pressure on G. breve
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Summary
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• EcoSim 2.0 appears to generate reasonable IOP predictions
across the West Florida Shelf in 1998.
– But freshwater fluxes are critical to near-shore predictions of IOPs.
– Reconstruction of phytoplankton absorption spectral from pigment
specific absorption yields errors in the blue.
• G. breve populations are minimal at all times during the year,
including Loop Current intrusions.
– Only way to get G. breve bloom is to increase nutrients without Si
and reduce grazing.
– Nitrogen-fixation may yield excess N, but is phosphorous limited in
shelf waters.
Movies
Nutrients
Phytoplankton Carbon
Chlorophyll a
Particulate and CDM Absorption
Total Absorption and Diffuse Attenuation
Florida
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