UNIT 3: FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY & IMPRESSIONS Objective: Identifying Male vs Female DO NOW: What differences in bones do you think exist between males and females? If you missed the quiz on Friday see me now What is Forensic Anthropology? The field of study that deals with the analysis of human skeletal remains resulting from unexplained deaths Development of Bone Bones begin as cartilage then harden to form bone (ossification) 206 Bones in Human Body Joint- location where bones meet Cartilage- found at ends of bones and protect bone Ligaments- connects bones to bones Tendons- connect muscle to bone Basic Bones SKULL Contains bones of the cranium and face Basic Bones HUMERUS Upper arm bone ULNA & RADIUS Forearm bones Basic Bones FEMUR Thigh bone TIBIA & FIBULA Lower leg bones Basic Bones - Pelvis SACRUM Triangular bone at the end of the spine COXAL Hip Bones Male or Female? Female- Skeleton is much smoother Male Skeleton is thicker, rougher, bumpier Muscles are more developed so where they attach need to be stronger ex. knee M vs F: Orbits M: square Male F: round Female M vs F: The Jaw M: square – 90 deg F: round, V-shape - >90 deg Male Female M vs F: Frontal Bone M: low and sloping F: high and rounded Male Female M vs F: Occipital bone (back of skull) M: bump present Male F: bump absent Female M vs F: Shape of Pelvic Cavity M: Heart shaped, narrow F: Oval shaped, wider M vs F: Subpubic Angle M: 50 – 82 deg MALE F: 90 deg FEMALE M vs F: Sacrum M: long, narrow, curves inward F: short, broad, curves outward MALE FEMALE Activity Complete Identifying male or female activity Closure Q’s from Activity: Case #1: Round eye orbits, Subpubic angle of 103° Case #2: Narrow pelvis, Sloping forehead Case #3: Smooth skull, Sacrum curves outward Objective: Determine Gender of Bones DO NOW: What is the shape of the pelvic cavity in females and why? Complete the lab male vs female skeleton Objective: Determining Age DO NOW: Why are male bones rougher than females? Determining Age Can determine age by looking at certain bones for cartilage still remaining Age: Infant or Not? Age: Sutures are where skull bones connect Lamboidal suture (back of head) – 30 yrs Coronal suture (front of head) – 50 yrs Age- Epiphysis • The presence of a line that marks where cartilage is replaced by bone • The age of completion varies for each bone Young (unfused) older (fused) even older (fused) Age: Teeth Have deciduous teeth fallen out? Have wisdom teeth erupted? Age When the head of a long bone has fused with the shaft it can help determine age Example: Humerus head fused: 4 – 6 yrs Humerus head fused to shaft: 18 - 20 Case Study Complete the snaggletooth killer case study Objective: Video case study DO NOW: If the skull is completely fused what does that indicate about the age of the individual? Objective: video case study www.mrpalermo.com (first 48) Complete the case review sheet Objective: Determine Height of Victim DO NOW: How can teeth be used to determine age? ****Hand in snaggletooth killer case study Height Measuring bones can help to approximate height Gender and race should be considered if known Determining Height Female tibia (cm) x 2.53 + 72.57 = height (cm) radius (cm) x 3.87 + 73.50 = height (cm) Male tibia (cm) x 2.39 + 81.68 = height (cm) radius (cm) x 3.65 + 80.40 = height (cm) A 41.3 cm Caucasoid male tibia was found in a wooded area. How tall was the this person? 41.3 cm x 2.39 + 81.68 = 180 cm (5’-11”) Lab: Complete Lab on Determining Height Work in groups of 2 or 3 To convert cm to feet: Multiply by 2.54 then divide by 12 Lab: Determining Height Do Now: What is the largest bone in the human body? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c 8IHPq9VgWI Finish Lab Today Objective: Facial Reconstruction DO NOW: What other useful things can be determined by bones besides age, height and sex? Race (ancestry) Can be difficult due to interracial people so not as significant as other factors Best determined with skull and femur Three categories are Caucasian, African, and Asian Mongoloid/Asian Skull Caucasian/European Skull Negroid/African Skull Facial Reconstruction Size and shape of bones vary in people Facial markers are placed on the skull and clay is applied to follow the height of the markers Today computer programs can do this Programs can adjust features and age a person Facial Reconstruction Facial Reconstruction Facial Reconstruction http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= VF1cVAb0J2Q DNA Evidence Bones contain little nuclear DNA but do contain mitochondrial DNA Can compare mitochondrial DNA with living relatives on the mother's side to identify bones Skeletal Trauma Analysis Forensic anthropologists determine if damage to bones occurred before or after death Antimortem- before death Perimortem- at or around time of death Postmortem- after death There are distinctions between damage caused by weapons and those created by the environment after death Antimortem damage Perimortem damage Ex. Sword wound Postmortem Damage http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= FGcN9_Gd5zQ Types of Trauma Sharp-force trauma, blunt force trauma, and gunshot wounds have distinct patterns Sharp force trauma Blunt force Trauma Gunshot wound The Body Farm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qZmLo8qIx4 Objective: case study John Wayne Gacy Do Now: Can DNA be found in bones? Objective: case study John Wayne Gacy Complete case study on john wayne gacy Objective: Video Case Study John Wayne Gacy http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= FPMHsaT88Sk Closure Q’s How many people did he kill? Why was he called the killer clown? Did he target a particular type of victim? If so what type?