Design for DFX - Jonathan M. Weaver

Report
Design for DFX
April 15, 2015
Mark Rockwell
John Murphy
Geno Scalcucci
Drew Kamerzell
A guide to creating effective
documentation for all DFX’s
How this lesson works
Scope
Ingredients
Case Study
The
Problem
Explanation of
purpose and
goals of the
ingredient
Description of
how a DFX case
study should
look
Lesson
Goals
Good/poor
examples pulled
from existing DFX
lessons
DF Poka Yoke
reimagined per
suggested DF
DFX structure
Demonstration of
ingredient for
explaining
DF DFX
Reflection on
the process
DF DFX Goals
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Create a structured guideline that can be applicable to
all DFX’s with allowance for easier use, understanding,
and comprehension by future readers.
Streamline the DFX lesson format to encourage better
edification and course experience in future classes.
Encapsulate and discuss the entire development
process as it applies to DFX, involving as many
departments within an organization as needed.
This DF”X” presentation will be used as a guideline for
future users creating coursework for DFX.
Current DFX Problem
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Existing DFX presentations were created by many
different people with different creative direction and
therefore very different styles.
This forces users to recalibrate their thought processes
as they traverse between DFX subjects and impedes
the ability of the reader to absorb the content.
Different formats and presentation structure leaves
holes in the subject matter and inconsistency in the way
the subject matter is presented.
Proposed Solution
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Standardization makes the presentations more readable
for users, maintains a consistent arrangement of core
information, and facilitates absorption of information
when reading/reviewing multiple DFX’s.
The key ingredients every DFX will need to effectively
reach the target users are:
o How the specified DFX is used
o How to apply the DFX lesson in practice
DF DFX Assumptions
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85% of the reading audience are graduate students with
little or no experience with defined “X”’s.
DFX should read like a book presented in Google
Sheets.
These documents are not an aid to a presentation but a
means to educate
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They are standalone documents with linked references
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NO PROPRIETARY INFORMATION!
DF DFX Course Outline
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Define The X
Define the Design for X
Define how you Design for X
What are the measures of failure and success
Highlight simple real world examples
Why you Care
How to Apply DFX
Key DFX Considerations
Case Study(s)
Define the X: Slide Goals
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Summarize what is the X to be outlined
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High-level definitions of the X
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Cite from industry/sources other definitions for the X for
different perspectives on the X
Define the X: Examples
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Good Examples
o
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DF Serviceability: the ability of a technician to
service a particular component of a system (IE, an
automobile transmission or computer hard drive).
Bad Examples
o
o
No definition given
DF Poka-yoke: “is Japanese for mistake proofing”
 How does this help the reader?
 Not cited.
DEFINE DFX
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“Under the label Design for X, a wide collection
of specific design guidelines are summarized.
Each design guideline addresses a particular
issue that is caused by, or affects the
characteristics of a product. The design
guidelines themselves usually propose an
approach and corresponding methods that may
help to generate and apply technical knowledge
in order to control, improve, or even to invent
particular characteristics of a product”1
DEFINE DFX
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DFX is a guideline that allows the user to
design for the X.
DFX is designing to prevent a failure or an
undesirable condition of the particular “X”.
DFX is making sure that the design functions
as intended in all circumstances
DF DFX Course Outline
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Define The X
Define the Design for X
Define how you Design for X
Measuring DFX Failure and Success
Simple Real World Examples
Why you Care
How to Apply DFX
Key DFX Considerations
Case Studies
Define “Design for X”: Slide Goals
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Outline what it means to design for the chosen X
It is important to capture not only what the X is but what
Designing for X entails
Why is important to design for this X - what needs to
accomplished or what error state needs to be avoided
It is important to give a good definition that not only
defines the “design for X” but delineates between the
definition of the X and the design for X
Define “Design for X”: Examples
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Good Example:
o
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DF Environment: A systematic consideration of
design performance with respect to environmental,
health, and safety objectives, over the full product
and process life cycle
Bad Example
o
Many DFX’s gloss over this part of the lesson
assuming defining the X is good enough. However,
just because someone knows what the testability is
doesn't mean they are able to design for testability.
What is Design for Design for X
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The organization of information
o Create a DFX that formalizes how to create or
reformat a DFX presentation.
o The “X’ in DF X suggests that the X is a variable
term that can be substituted with any number of
“functions”: Assembly, Cost, Fabrication,
Manufacturing, Reliability, Serviceability Etc.
DF DFX Course Outline
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Define The X
Define the Design for X
Define how you Design for X
Measuring DFX Failure and Success
Simple Real World Examples
Why you Care
How to Apply DFX
Key DFX Considerations
Case Studies
How to Design for X
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This slide should describe to the reader how to design
for the X. It is a high level summary of the process. The
detailed step by step process will be described in the
How to Apply DFX section. You as the expert should
take into account all appropriate steps needed to design
the X properly and describe in detail with guidelines for
the reader to follow. All tools and techniques needed to
DFX are described. Any additional DFX’s that should be
worked in parallel are also noted.
How to Design for X
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GOOD
o The reader can clearly understand the DFX process. They can
follow the DFX process after reading the case study. The reader
should be able to describe and explain the process after reading the
DFX.
POOR
o The DFX contains no description of how to design for X.
o The reader gained no knowledge or ability to explain the X.
How to Design for X: DFX
These guidelines should be used when designing for DFX
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The DFX should define the X
The DFX should define the design for X
The DFX should give examples of failure and success
The DFX should provide real world examples of the X
The DFX should provide reasons for why you care about the
design for X
The DFX should provide detailed process of how to apply the
DFX
The DFX should provide key considerations
The DFX should include case study examples
DF DFX Course Outline
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Define The X
Define the Design for X
Define how you Design for X
Measuring DFX Failure and Success
Simple Real World Examples
Why You Care
How to Apply DFX
Key DFX Considerations
Case Studies
Measuring failure and success:
Slide Goals
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It is important to indicate what determines good or poor DFX. These
measures supply a metric for a user to objectively indicate their strength or
weakness in the implementation of a particular DFX.
Measures of success and failure vary greatly between different DFX’s, take
into considerations the different stakeholders involved with your particular
DFX and ask questions like these:
o How is a stakeholder’s interaction with a design changed based on
the selected “X”?
o Is there a tangible difference versus designs in existence? Why?
The answer to why will lead to measurable levels of success that can be
used to indicate success/failure.
Degrees of success/failure should be objectively measurable
In addition, when all DFX’s have objective metrics a user will be able to
access their design and progress at different points in their process and
determine where the product/concept is strong/weak and what elements
have opportunity for improvement.
Measuring failure and success:
Examples
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Good
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DF Ergonomics: Discussion of objective
measurements needed for Anthropometrics (slide
24). Discussion on objective measures that have
been developed over time to determine if a concept
has good design for ergonomics elements
Poor
o
o
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Objective measures not given
Subjective or muscle memory examples provided.
Missing examples of how someone with little
experience could review a concept and determine
how well/poor a particular DFX is implemented
Measuring failure and success:
DF DFX
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Provide methods of how to measure the quality of
implementation for chosen DFX
o Create a simple questionnaire about chosen DFX
o Survey people w/ and w/o DFX lesson support
o Compare and use results to indicate where your
lesson is strong and weak
Using this presentation as a template ensure your
DFX contains all ingredients necessary to create a
well-rounded lesson
DF DFX Course Outline
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Define The X
Define the Design for X
Define how you Design for X
Measuring DFX Failure and Success
Simple Real World Examples
Why you Care
How to Apply DFX
Key DFX Considerations
Case Studies
Real World Examples: Slide Goals
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These are short examples that can give the user a quick
example of how a particular DFX is used in daily life.
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Very high level and simple.
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Cite sources and link references where possible.
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Goal is to to ground the audience with examples that
capture the DFX based on the discussion in the lesson
to this point.
Real World Examples: Examples
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GOOD
o
DF Customization: “vintage PC’s required the user
to manually install software drivers and alter BIOS
settings when installing different hard drives, video
cards, etc.”
Real World Examples: Examples
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POOR Example
Suppose a worker must assemble a device that has two push-buttons
and a spring under each button.
Sometimes a worker will forget a spring.
A simple poka-yoke device was developed to eliminate this problem:
The worker counts out two springs from a bin and places them in
a small dish
After assembly is complete, if a spring remains in the dish, the
operator knows an error has occurred
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HOWEVER: The operator has no way of knowing if one of the springs fell out of
the dish, if both springs were put into the same button, the springs were put into
the buttons correctly and then one of them fell out en route to being installed.
The best way to poke yoke this would be to have the push-button molded
around the spring to ensure presence at all times (this process is also easily
poka yoke’d)
DF DFX Example
Taxonomy of DFX template 4
DF DFX Example
Source: Guide to Course Design
INITIAL DESIGN PHASE: Build Strong Primary Components
Step 1. Identify important situational factors
Step 2. Identify important learning goals
Step 3. Formulate appropriate feedback and assessment procedures
Step 4. Select effective teaching/learning activities
Step 5. Make sure the primary components are integrated
INTERMEDIATE DESIGN PHASE: Assemble the Components into a Coherent Whole
Step 6. Create a thematic structure for the course
Step 7. Select or create an instructional strategy
Step 8. Integrate the course structure and the instructional strategy to
create an overall scheme of learning activities
FINAL DESIGN PHASE: Finish Important Remaining Tasks
Step 9. Develop the grading system
Step 10. De-Bug possible problems
Step 11. Write the course syllabus
Step 12. Plan an evaluation of the course and of your teaching3
DF DFX Course Outline
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Define The X
Define the Design for X
Define how you Design for X
Measuring DFX Failure and Success
Simple Real World Examples
Why you Care
How to Apply DFX
Key DFX Considerations
Case Studies
Why You Care: Slide Goals
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Why do you need this part of the presentation?
o To ensure the information being presented reaches
out to the target audience.
What value does it add?
o To have the target audience walk away with the
gained knowledge and be able to apply principles
from the DFX reviewed obtain additional reference
material.
What should it accomplish in driving home the
lesson of your chosen DF DFX?
o The knowledge and skill sets presented are gained
and can be applied.
Why You Care: Examples
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Good
o
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Why does it matter to you?
 All the work placed in creating the DFX should
not be wasted. Knowledge placed in
presentation should be shared, learned, and
expanded upon.
Poor
o
Why does it matter to you?
 The presentation material doesn’t mesh well and
target audience doesn’t gain the knowledge
potential from the material.
Why Your Customers Care
about DF DFX?
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Why does it matter to your customer?
o When using the DFX your customer may notice part
variation, a squeak or rattle, a water or wind leak, a
major component failure. These are some of the
issues you must address when designing for the X.
o When using DFX the assembly plant will also be
affected. If a part is designed in a way in which it
could be incorrectly built or very difficult to build.
Why Your Stakeholders Care
about DF DFX?
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Why does it matter to other stakeholders?
o The stakeholders must be addressed in the DFX.
There are many stakeholders in that are affected by
the design. Suppliers, service, end customer,
management, testing etc.
o Keep the stakeholders in mind to manage their
influence in relation to the requirements to ensure a
successful project.
DF DFX Course Outline
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Define The X
Define the Design for X
Define how you Design for X
Measuring DFX Failure and Success
Simple Real World Examples
Why you Care
How to Apply DFX
Key DFX Considerations
Case Studies
How to apply DFX: Slide Goals
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The reader should now have all the necessary
background for how to apply the X. To further explain
how to design for the X, you should detail the step by
step process of how you, the expert, designs for the X.
How to apply DFX: Examples
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GOOD
o Each step of the DFX process is defined in understandable terms.
o The reader can easily follow the process.
o The process is not missing any steps.
o The process is in a logical order.
POOR
o The DFX contains no process of how to design for the X.
o After reading the process the reader can not properly complete a
design using the DFX process.
How to apply DF DFX
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The DFX should-guidelines should be flexible and be adaptable to
changing situations
DFX - guidelines should be aware of the dependencies between
contradicting DFXs
DFX - guidelines should support the early and all of the
development phases
DFX - guidelines should include steps to review all related DFX and
if possible work together in parallel
DFX - guidelines should include any definitions that the average
student would not know
DFX - guidelines should look at impacts to stakeholders
DFX process should be well defined, complete and not missing
steps
After reading this DFX the reader should be able to follow the
guidelines to create a DFX of their own
How to apply DF DFX
Where possible, the DFX should follow a consistent general outline for better
reading consumption by the end users reading multiple DFX’s. Here’s a
recommended outline:
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Define The X
Define the Design for X
Define how you Design for X
Measuring DFX Failure and Success
Simple Real World Examples
Why you Care
How to Apply DFX
Key DFX Considerations
Case Studies
DF DFX Course Outline
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Define The X
Define the Design for X
Define how you Design for X
Measuring DFX Failure and Success
Simple Real World Examples
Why you Care
How to Apply DFX
Key DFX Considerations
Case Studies
Key Considerations: Slide Goals
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The key considerations element of your DFX lesson is an
opportunity to recapture highlights of the entire lesson. Highlighting
pieces of information you want everyone to walk away with after
reading your lecture.
Focus on simple and easy examples that any user can implement
nearly immediately in the real world with your DFX in mind.
Link to other DFX’s that are relevant to your chosen DFX. Most of
the DFX’s relate to each other in some aspect or another. It is
important to highlight this DFX to other DFX’s and discuss how
they work together.
Reiterate the importance of stakeholders relationship with the DFX.
Arguably one of the most important considerations with all DFX’s is
how they relate to all of the relevant stakeholders.
Key Considerations: Examples
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Good
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DF HV Battery Sizing: Recap key points for DF HV
Battery for temperature control as it relates to other
DFX’s
Poor
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Recap not present
Considerations don’t refer back to previously
mentioned material (first time information is
mentioned)
No discussion of how different stakeholders are
affected
Key DF DFX Considerations
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Consider the applicability of other DFX subject matter to
your topic. With this you take advantage of other
existing resources to help educate your audience on
your topic.
The ability of the audience to understand the content is
the prime consideration. If the intent of the lesson is
unclear to them, then the content needs to be revised.
NO PROPRIETARY INFORMATION
DF DFX Relation to other DFX’s
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DF Cohorts: DFX is an elective in the MPD program
understanding how designing for DFX should fall within
the scope of what makes good DF Cohorts.
DF Product Evolution: Design the DFX lesson with the
understanding that future classes will review, learn,
update, and expand
DF Testability: Good DF DFX is measurable and has
the ability to self check itself to ensure the user is
digesting the material
DF DFX Course Outline
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Define The X
Define the Design for X
Define how you Design for X
Measuring DFX Failure and Success
Simple Real World Examples
Why you Care
How to Apply DFX
Key DFX Considerations
Case Studies
Case Study: Slide Goals
● Case studies are in depth examples of the application of
particular DFX in practice
● The goal is to deep dive and explain in detail how a
DFX was taken into consideration when generating a
concept or design
● Case studies will pull together the ingredients
demonstrated through the first part of the lesson and
mix them together into a complete meal for the reader
to consume
● Case studies can be actual examples from industry,
projects conducted in other coursework, or exposes on
what should have been done
Case Study: General Outline
● Case Background and History
○ Summary and scope of what the case study is and
necessary context to demonstrate DFX to given
example
● What is the problem?
○ Highlight the primary issue in the case and how DFX
could be applied to rectify the situation or improve
the product
● Strength/Weakness of Case
○ What are the pros/cons of the given system
Case Study: General Outline
● Key DFX Considerations and attributes
○ Prior to application of DFX highlight needs and features that
are in need of DFX. What are signs that DFX is needed to
improve
● How your DFX was implemented
○ Using pieces from the original explanation and breakdown of
DFX walk through examples and steps of how the DFX was
implemented to improve the process
● Key take aways for your DFX
○ What have you learned and what can the user take away from
this study to help apply the given DFX in their lives
DF DFX Case Study: DFA5-Poka Yoke
Background and History
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Design for Assembly (Part 5); DFA5: Poka Yoke is
being chosen for our case because it stood out as one
that could be shown to benefit from following DF DFX
guidelines.
Link to original DFX Lesson
DF DFX Case Study: DFA5-Poka Yoke
Problem Statement
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The Design for Assembly Part 5 (DFA5); Poka Yoke
didn’t follow the original outline in slide #2. Also, when
this file is read as a stand alone file (apart from the
other DFA’s) it felt disconnected.
The original slide #3 defines the term as Poka-Yoke,
and majority of the slides refer to it as “Poke Yoke”.
Consistency is important.
A simpler DFX that shows the benefits of DF DFX.
DF DFX Case Study: DFA5-Poka Yoke
Strengths and Weaknesses
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Strengths
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Excellent examples with verbiage and imagery that
drive home the meaning and implementation of
Poka Yoke
Well thought out methodology
Weaknesses
o
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Limited scope and introduction to actual DFX
Outside of examples lack of guidelines of how to
apply DFX to other concepts or projects
No references for more indepth study should it be
desired
DF DFX Case Study: DFA5-Poka Yoke
Implementation of DF DFX
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The following slides with light blue
background are the DF Poka Yoke
reimagined per the DF DFX breakdown at
the beginning of the lesson.
As you proceed, take note at how each
piece of the lesson captures the goals
described in the noted DF DFX architecture.
DEFINE: Poka Yoke
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Poka-yoke (poh-kah yoh-keh) means ‘mistake-proofing’
or more literally: avoiding (yokeru) inadvertent errors
(poka). Ideally, poka-yokes ensure that proper
conditions exist before actually executing a process
step, preventing defects from occurring in the first place.
Where this is not possible, poka-yokes perform a
detective function, eliminating defects in the process as
early as possible.2
Define the Design for Poka Yoke
The basic approach to design for Poka-Yoke should follow the
following guidelines:
1. The method should be Inexpensive
2. The method must be based on common sense and very obvious
to the person involved in the assembly process
3. The design must eliminate the ability for the error to occur.
Define how you Design for Poka Yoke
Step by Step process in applying Poka-Yoke:
1. Identify the operation or process - based on a pareto.
2. Analyze and understand the way a process can fail.
3. Decide the right poka-yoke approach, such as using a shutout
type (preventing an error being made), or an attention type
(highlighting that an error has been made) poka-yoke take a
more comprehensive approach instead of merely thinking of
poka-yokes as limit switches, or automatic shutoffs a pokayoke can be electrical, mechanical, procedural, visual, human
or any other form that prevents incorrect execution of a process
step.2
Define how you Design for Poka
Yoke
Step by Step process in applying Poka-Yoke
(continued):
4. Determine whether a:
 Contact - use of shape, size or other physical attributes for
detection.
 Constant number - error triggered if a certain number of \
actions are not made.
 Sequence method - use of a checklist to ensure completing
all process steps is appropriate.
5. Trial the method and see if it works.
6. Train the operator, review performance and measure success.2
Measuring DF Poka Yoke
Failure and Success
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Success
o The Poka Yoke feature prevents the assembly line
operator from installing the wiring in the wrong
connector because the connectors shape does not
allow it to be installed in the incorrect position.
Failure
o The Poka Yoke device does not prevent the improper
connection of the wiring harness’
Real World Examples of Poka Yoke
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Driver Dual-Stage Airbag Connector Interface
o Connectors are “Keyed” and “Color-Coded” to
prevent incorrect assembly of the connectors.
Driver Airbag
Clockspring - Airbag Connector Pigtails
Real World Examples of Poka Yoke
Envelopes
•
The window in the
envelope is not only a
labor saving device,
but it also prevents the
contents of an
envelope intended for
one person being
inserted in an
envelope addressed to
another individual
Why You Care about Poka Yoke
● You
○ Improves quality, cost and performs a detective
function, eliminating defects in the process as early
as possible
● Customer
○ Ensures satisfaction through delivering a high quality
product that works correctly and problem free out of
the box (and ideally for duration of expected life)
● Other Stakeholders
○ Consistently correctly assembled products translates
to “Money money money!”
How can you Apply Poka Yoke
● Poka-yoke can be used wherever something can go wrong or an
error can be made. It is a technique, a tool that can be applied to
any type of process be it in manufacturing or the service industry.
● Errors are many types (6 listed):
1. Processing errors
Make sure that welds/fasteners are accessible for detection
equipment to verify their location/existance.
2. Setup error
Using the wrong tooling or setting machine adjustments
incorrectly.2
How can you Apply Poka Yoke
● Errors are many types (6 listed - continued):
3. Missing part
Not all parts included in the assembly, welding, or other
processes.
4. Improper part/item
Wrong part used in the process.
5. Operations error
Carrying out an operation incorrectly; having the incorrect
version of the specification.
6. Measurement error
Errors in machine adjustment, test measurement or dimensions
of a part coming in from a supplier.2
Poka Yoke Key Considerations
●
Poka Yoke requires immersion into the entire assembly
process
○ Assemblers will find a way to defeat the poka yoke
○ Immersion allows for an understanding of the entire
assembly process and potential escape paths for
defeating poka yoke
● Don’t assume misassembly only means not put together
properly. What are other escape paths that could lead
to a poor customer experience because of lack of poka
yoke
Poka Yoke as it applies to other DFX
● DF Quality: DF Poka Yoke has become an industry
standard in ensuring products achieve top quality and
are consistently built as expected
● DF Testability: Good DF testability needs DF Poka
Yoke to make sure tests cannot easily be fooled or
“cheated.”
● DF Product Evolution: When designing a product for
today as well as tomorrow it is important to understand
how DF Poka Yoke may affect future iterations of a
product.
DF Poka Yoke Case Studies
In effort to prevent a recursive loop of dfx-ness
please refer to the original DF Poka Yoke for
some excellent case studies
Link to original DFX Lesson
DF DFX Case Study: DFA5-Poka Yoke
Key DF DFX Take aways
Team how do you feel about how we applied DF DFX to
DF Poka Yoke?
The intent of DF DFX, is to present the material in a
clear and effective way. It is to help guide the author of
the chosen DFX to reach the maximum potential of
reaching out to even a novice reader by providing good
detailed examples for the reader to take in and be able
to apply to the DFX.
Reflect on the process
Drew
- Developing a template/process for creating a DFX was more complex than I
imagined it would be. Trying to develop a format that allows the reader to
absorb the content being presented was the most challenging since the flow
needed to be logical and systematic. The existing DFX’s are in need of a
major overhaul since most of the information presented in them is out of
context with the actual DFX (it’s not really a DFX, it is just randomly
presented information). This template will allow future revisions to the existing
DFX’s and future DFX’s to be more readable and informative.
John
- From Part I of the DFX assignment, there are many DFX applications and the
approaches taken to each of the DFX’s varied between them. This made
reading the material harder to take in and some of the DFX’s varied in the
way the material was also being presented. Working on our project to make
improvements turned out to be more work than anticipated, but it was a great
concept and the team met often to develop and achieve the goals. Hopefully,
the DF DFX can become a benefit to future DFX overhaulers / authors.
Reflect on the process
Geno
-After working on the generic DFX outline I found it is very difficult to
incorporate all the DFX into one outline. I feel we did a successful job at
putting together a generic DFX that can be used by future classes. This
project will enable the DFX material to be uniform and easier to understand.
Mark
-Reviewing the DFX coursework it became clear that i had a lot of examples
and a lot of information for what many different types of DFX were.
However, I found myself lost when it came to understanding how to apply
any of these DFX’s. The purpose of any course is to absorb information for
some sort of application. Therefore while deep diving and breaking down
what DF DFX should be it became evident that the goal would be
determining how to best aid absorption and ensure that absorption could be
transferred into direct application.
References
1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Design_for_X
2http://thequalityportal.com/pokayoke.htm
3 http://www.deefinkandassociates.com/GuidetoCourseDesignAug05.pdf
4
http://rd.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-642-30817-8
http://www.amazon.com/Creating-Significant-Learning-Experiences-Integrated/dp/0787960551
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