Them Bones Human Growth and Physiology I Skeletal System Lab A & P EMPACTS Project By Sydney Kilgore, NWACC Pre-Nursing Student Dr. P. Mocivnik, A & P Instructor Project Introduction Anatomy and Physiology students, who participate in hybrid and online courses, are in need of interactive laboratory experiences. Project Overview This project is designed to augment the learning experience in a blended A & P learning laboratory environment. It is designed to help supplement those students for lab two, on the skeletal system. Curriculum Objectives To list the five functions of the skeletal system. To identify the four main groups/types of bones. To identify the major anatomical areas of a bone. To identify the anatomical structure of compact bone and its parts. To identify the appendicular and axial classification of the human skeleton. The Five Functions of the Skeletal System 1. Support Bones provide the framework that supports the body. They also function to support and cradle many of the organs. An example: the femurs support the entire upper body so that we can stand, walk, and even dance. 2. Protection Many of the bones of the body function to protect delicate organs. The ribs form the thoracic cavity and protect the lungs, heart, liver, and parts of the upper GI. 3. Movement Skeletal muscles attach to bones and use those bones as levers to move the body and it’s parts. The humerus connects to the scapula at the shoulder. HUMERUS 4. Mineral and Growth Factor Storage The bones serve as a reservoir for minerals, mostly calcium and phosphate. Inside the bone, you will find the body’s storage supply of many minerals If the body calls for more calcium (if clotting agent is needed, for example), cells called osteoclasts “mine” the bone for the needed mineral. 5. Blood Cell Formation Most blood cell formation occurs in the bone marrow. Review of the Functions of the Skeletal System 1. Support 2. Protection 3. Movement 4. Mineral and Growth Factor Storage 5. Blood Cell Formation The Four Main Types of Bones 1. Long Bones Are longer than they are wide. Hence, “long” bones. The Humerus of the upper arm is an example of a long bone. Others include the femur, the ulna, the tibia, and the carpals. 2. Short Bones These bones are roughly cube shaped. The metacarpals of the wrist are examples of short bones. 3. Sesamoid Bones These are short bones that form within a tendon. They are unique because they do not articulate with another bone. The patella, highlighted, is an example of a sesamoid bone. 4. Flat Bones These bones are thin, flattened, and usually curved. The scapula of the shoulder is an example of a flat bone. Review of the Types of Bones 1. Long Bones 2. Short Bones 3. Sesamoid Bones 4. Flat Bones 5. Note: Irregular Bones are sometimes considered a category. These bones do not fit into any other group. Major Anatomical Areas of the Bone Articular Cartilage Epiphysis (end) Epiphyseal Line Spongy Bone Diaphysis (long part of bone) Periosteum Articular Cartilage Epiphysis Anatomical Areas of Bone – Special Functions Spongy Bone serves to keep the skeleten light. If all of our bones were dense, we would be too heavy and cumbersome to walk! Spongy Bone also serves as the place for blood cell formation. The Periosteum covers the bone and helps protect it. Compact Bone gives us strength and lets our bodies withstand daily forces, like that of jumping. The Anatomical Structure of Compact Bone Compact Bone Osteocytes – the basic cells of the bone. (Think: Osteo =bone, Cyte=cell.) Osteon- basic structure of compact bone. Lamellae – rings that make up the circlular osteon. Lacuna – house maturing and mature osteocytes Perforating fibers Canals which function to give blood vessels a place to move around. Osteon Lamellae Canal Lacuna Classifying the Skeleton Appendicular and Axial Skeleton Classification The Appendicular Skeleton Consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the girdles and attaches TO the axial skeleton. Are the bones that create locomotion. The Axial Skeleton Forms the long axis of the body. Includes the bones of the skull, vertebra, and rib cage. Are generally the protecting and supporting bones. A special thanks to my friend Elvis, the laboratory skeleton. Elvis and Sydney ACKNOWLEDGMENTS •Anatomy and Physiology, Third Edition; Marieb, Elaine N. and Hoehn, Katja. 2009 •C. Dianne Phillips, EAST/EMPACTS Facilitator •P. Mocivnik, Anatomy and Physiology Instructor THANK YOU!