*Dem Bones

Them Bones
Human Growth and Physiology I
Skeletal System Lab
A & P EMPACTS Project
By Sydney Kilgore, NWACC Pre-Nursing Student
Dr. P. Mocivnik, A & P Instructor
Project Introduction
Anatomy and Physiology students, who participate in
hybrid and online courses, are in need of interactive
laboratory experiences.
Project Overview
 This project is designed to augment the learning experience
in a blended A & P learning laboratory environment.
 It is designed to help supplement those students for lab two,
on the skeletal system.
Curriculum Objectives
 To list the five functions of the skeletal system.
 To identify the four main groups/types of bones.
 To identify the major anatomical areas of a bone.
 To identify the anatomical structure of compact bone and its
 To identify the appendicular and axial classification of the
human skeleton.
The Five Functions of the Skeletal System
1. Support
 Bones provide the
framework that supports
the body.
 They also function to
support and cradle many of
the organs.
An example: the femurs support
the entire upper body so that we
can stand, walk, and even dance.
2. Protection
 Many of the bones of the
body function to protect
delicate organs.
The ribs form the
thoracic cavity
and protect the
lungs, heart, liver,
and parts of the
upper GI.
3. Movement
muscles attach
to bones and
use those bones
as levers to
move the body
and it’s parts.
The humerus
connects to the
scapula at the
4. Mineral and Growth Factor Storage
The bones
serve as a
reservoir for
calcium and
Inside the bone, you will
find the body’s storage
supply of many minerals
If the body calls for more
calcium (if clotting agent is
needed, for example), cells
called osteoclasts “mine” the
bone for the needed mineral.
5. Blood Cell Formation
 Most blood cell
formation occurs
in the bone
Review of the Functions of the
Skeletal System
1. Support
2. Protection
3. Movement
4. Mineral and Growth Factor Storage
5. Blood Cell Formation
The Four Main Types of Bones
1. Long Bones
 Are longer than they are wide. Hence, “long” bones.
The Humerus of the upper
arm is an example of a long
bone. Others include the
femur, the ulna, the tibia, and
the carpals.
2. Short Bones
 These bones are roughly
cube shaped.
The metacarpals
of the wrist are
examples of
short bones.
3. Sesamoid Bones
 These are short bones that
form within a tendon.
 They are unique because
they do not articulate with
another bone.
 The patella, highlighted, is
an example of a sesamoid
4. Flat Bones
 These bones are thin,
flattened, and usually
The scapula of the
shoulder is an
example of a flat
Review of the Types of Bones
1. Long Bones
2. Short Bones
3. Sesamoid Bones
4. Flat Bones
5. Note: Irregular Bones are sometimes considered a
category. These bones do not fit into any other
Major Anatomical Areas of the Bone
Articular Cartilage
Epiphysis (end)
Epiphyseal Line
Spongy Bone
Diaphysis (long part
of bone)
Articular Cartilage
Anatomical Areas of Bone –
Special Functions
 Spongy Bone serves to keep the skeleten light. If all of our
bones were dense, we would be too heavy and cumbersome
to walk!
 Spongy Bone also serves as the place for blood cell
 The Periosteum covers the bone and helps protect it.
 Compact Bone gives us strength and lets our bodies
withstand daily forces, like that of jumping.
The Anatomical Structure of Compact Bone
Compact Bone
 Osteocytes – the basic cells of the bone. (Think: Osteo
=bone, Cyte=cell.)
Osteon- basic structure of compact bone.
Lamellae – rings that make up the circlular osteon.
Lacuna – house maturing and mature osteocytes
Perforating fibers
Canals which function to give blood vessels a place to
move around.
Classifying the Skeleton
Appendicular and Axial Skeleton Classification
 The Appendicular Skeleton
 Consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the
girdles and attaches TO the axial skeleton.
 Are the bones that create locomotion.
 The Axial Skeleton
 Forms the long axis of the body.
 Includes the bones of the skull, vertebra, and rib cage.
 Are generally the protecting and supporting bones.
A special thanks to my friend Elvis, the
laboratory skeleton.
Elvis and Sydney
•Anatomy and Physiology, Third Edition; Marieb,
Elaine N. and Hoehn, Katja. 2009
•C. Dianne Phillips, EAST/EMPACTS Facilitator
•P. Mocivnik, Anatomy and Physiology Instructor

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